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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636790

ABSTRACT

Cefiderocol use in A. baumannii pneumonia still represents an important matter of debate. The aim of this study is to describe 13 cases of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) pneumonia treated with cefiderocol in real-life practice. We retrospectively included patients with CRAB pneumonia hospitalized at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli Hospital treated with cefiderocol either in the general ward or the intensive care unit. A total of 11 patients out of 13 had ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by CRAB, and 12/13 patients had polymicrobial infection. We found a 30-day success rate of 54%. Cefiderocol may have a role when facing severe XDR A. baumannii pneumonia. Future studies are warranted to better define its place in therapy in CRAB infections.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481016

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent threat to public health and global development; in this scenario, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic has caused a major disruption of healthcare systems and practices. A narrative review was conducted on articles focusing on the impact of COVID-19 on multidrug-resistant gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. We found that, worldwide, multiple studies reported an unexpected high incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and C. auris among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. In this setting, inappropriate antimicrobial exposure, environmental contamination, and discontinuation of infection control measures may have driven selection and diffusion of drug-resistant pathogens.

5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403246

ABSTRACT

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pandemics , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , International Cooperation , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration
6.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1752-1760, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392877

ABSTRACT

Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/ß inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml-1, 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

Background: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Methods: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. Findings: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. Interpretation: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

8.
Respir Med ; 187: 106571, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347816

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical, radiological and histopathological features consistent with viral-induced organizing pneumonia (OP) have been reported as hallmark characteristics of the disease. Here, we describe the case of ten patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with methylprednisolone 1mg/kg for showing clinical and radiological features suggestive of OP at least 20 days after symptom onset and despite standard treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Aged , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
9.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346128

ABSTRACT

We explored the potential link between chronic inflammatory arthritis and COVID-19 pathogenic and resolving macrophage pathways and their role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) macrophage clusters FCN1+ and FCN1+SPP1+ predominant in severe COVID-19 were transcriptionally related to synovial tissue macrophage (STM) clusters CD48hiS100A12+ and CD48+SPP1+ that drive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis. BALF macrophage cluster FABP4+ predominant in healthy lung was transcriptionally related to STM cluster TREM2+ that governs resolution of synovitis in RA remission. Plasma concentrations of SPP1 and S100A12 (key products of macrophage clusters shared with active RA) were high in severe COVID-19 and predicted the need for Intensive Care Unit transfer, and they remained high in the post-COVID-19 stage. High plasma levels of SPP1 were unique to severe COVID-19 when compared with other causes of severe pneumonia, and IHC localized SPP1+ macrophages in the alveoli of COVID-19 lung. Investigation into SPP1 mechanisms of action revealed that it drives proinflammatory activation of CD14+ monocytes and development of PD-L1+ neutrophils, both hallmarks of severe COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19 pneumonitis appears driven by similar pathogenic myeloid cell pathways as those in RA, and their mediators such as SPP1 might be an upstream activator of the aberrant innate response in severe COVID-19 and predictive of disease trajectory including post-COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Osteopontin/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD48 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/metabolism , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/immunology , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Osteopontin/blood , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , S100A12 Protein/immunology , S100A12 Protein/metabolism , Synovial Membrane/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224056

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which impairs the functionality of several organs, represents a major threat to human health. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients' access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for the fast and non-invasive collection of specimens and can be repeated multiple times. METHODS: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free light chains (kFLC and λFLC) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. RESULTS: We found that each biomarker differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. A Receiving Operator Curve analysis shows that λFLC level is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups (AUC = 0.96), with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI), and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). CONCLUSION: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that the λFLC half-life (approximately 6 h) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days), thus confirming the potential of λFLC for effectively monitoring patients' fluctuation in real-time.

11.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antibody response plays a fundamental role in the natural history of infectious disease. A better understanding of the immune response in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for identifying patients at greater risk of developing a more severe form of disease and with a worse prognosis. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis to determine the presence and the levels of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA in a cohort of hospitalized patients with confirmed infection at different times in the natural history of the disease. Patients enrolled when admitted at the emergency department were prospectively followed up during hospital stay. RESULTS: Overall, 131 patients were considered with a total of 237 samples processed. Cross-sectional analysis showed that seroconversion for IgA seems to occur between days 6 and 15, while IgG response seems to occur slightly later, peaking at day 20 after symptoms onset. Both IgA and IgG were maintained beyond 2 months. Severe patients showed a higher IgA response compared with mild patients when analyzing optical density (8.3 versus 5.6, p < 0.001). Prospective analysis conducted on 55 patients confirmed that IgA appear slightly earlier than IgG. After stratifying for the severity of disease, both the IgA and IgG responses were more vigorous in severe cases. Moreover, while IgG tended to stabilize, there was a relevant decline after the first month of IgA levels in mild cases. CONCLUSION: IgA and IgG antibody response is closely related, although seroconversion for IgA occurs earlier. Both IgA and IgG are maintained beyond 2 months. Severe patients showed a more vigorous IgA and IgG response. IgA levels seem to decline after 1 month since the onset of symptoms in mild cases. Our results should be interpreted with cautions due to several limitations in our study, mainly the small number of cases, lack of data on viral load and clinical setting.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154372

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers are at the forefront against COVID-19, worldwide. Since Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli (FPG) IRCCS was enlisted as a COVID-19 hospital, the healthcare workers deployed to COVID-19 wards were separated from those with limited/no exposure, whereas the administrative staff were designated to work from home. Between 4 June and 3 July 2020, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies among the employees of the FPG using point-of-care (POC) and venous blood tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on nasal/oropharyngeal swabs as the diagnostic gold standard. The participants enrolled amounted to 4777. Seroprevalence was 3.66% using the POC test and 1.19% using the venous blood test, with a significant difference (p < 0.05). The POC test sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 63.64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.20% to 65.04%) and 96.64% (95% CI: 96.05% to 97.13%), while those of the venous blood test were, respectively, 78.79% (95% CI: 77.58% to 79.94%) and 99.36% (95% CI: 99.07% to 99.55%). Among the low-risk populations, the POC test's predictive values were 58.33% (positive) and 98.23% (negative), whereas those of the venous blood test were 92.86% (positive) and 98.53% (negative). According to our study, these serological tests cannot be a valid alternative to diagnose COVID-19 infection in progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Rome , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
13.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115434

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people, fostering and unprecedent effort in vaccine development and distribution. Healthcare workers (HCW) play a key role in vaccine promotion and patient guidance, and it is likely that hesitancy among this population will have a major impact on the adoption of a successful immunization policy. To investigate HCW attitudes towards anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccination, we developed an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. 1723 Italian HCW responded. Overall, 1155 (67%) intended to be vaccinated, while 443 (26%) were not sure and 125 (7%) declared refusal. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with hesitancy were using Facebook as the main information source and being a non-physician HCW, while predictors of acceptance included younger age, being in close contact with high-risk groups and having received flu vaccination during the 2019-2020 season. Reasons for hesitancy included lack of trust in vaccine safety (85%) and receiving little (78%) or conflicting (69%) information about vaccines. According to our results, adequate investment in vaccine education for healthcare personnel appears to be urgently needed, prioritizing non-physicians and information quality spread through social media. We hope that our data could help governments and policy-makers to target communication in the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(8): 1054-1065, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. AIM: We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. RESULTS: Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Aged , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thrombophilia/blood
15.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948922

ABSTRACT

Data on the burden of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are scant. We conducted an observational, retrospective, multicenter, 1:3 case (COVID-19 patients with CDI)-control (COVID-19 patients without CDI) study in Italy to assess incidence and outcomes, and to identify risk factors for CDI in COVID-19 patients. From February through July 2020, 8402 COVID-19 patients were admitted to eight Italian hospitals; 38 CDI cases were identified, including 32 hospital-onset-CDI (HO-CDI) and 6 community-onset, healthcare-associated-CDI (CO-HCA-CDI). HO-CDI incidence was 4.4 × 10,000 patient-days. The percentage of cases recovering without complications at discharge (i.e., pressure ulcers, chronic heart decompensation) was lower than among controls (p = 0.01); in-hospital stays was longer among cases, 35.0 versus 19.4 days (p = 0.0007). The presence of a previous hospitalisation (p = 0.001), previous steroid administration (p = 0.008) and the administration of antibiotics during the stay (p = 0.004) were risk factors associated with CDI. In conclusions, CDI complicates COVID-19, mainly in patients with co-morbidities and previous healthcare exposures. Its association with antibiotic usage and hospital acquired bacterial infections should lead to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programmes and infection prevention and control activities.

16.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(11): 1298-1302, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937677

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Clinical autopsies have historically provided a fundamental contribution in the definition of the clinicopathologic basis of infectious diseases. Even though we are witnessing the decline of the clinical autopsy, its importance remains unchanged as it is the most exhaustive way to investigate diseases. The identification of the virus in postmortem tissues is a fundamental step in the definition of its clinical features. OBJECTIVE.­: To investigate the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in postmortem examination with swabs. DESIGN.­: We performed postmortem swabs in 12 autopsy cases of patients with a clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Our protocol consisted of a rhinopharyngeal and a tracheal swab in order to search for the virus in the upper airways, and of 2 swabs on the parenchyma of each lung. We also performed a fifth swab on the parenchyma of both lungs in order to search for other viruses that could evolve in a clinical picture of interstitial pneumonia. RESULTS.­: Overall, we found 9 of 12 cases had at least 1 postmortem swab positive for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we evaluated the time between the antemortem and postmortem swabs, the time between death and the postmortem swabs, and the time between the postmortem swabs and acceptance to the microbiology laboratory. Of note, we did not find a relationship between the results of the swabs and either the time elapsed from their collection or the time elapsed before their acceptance in the microbiology laboratory. CONCLUSIONS.­: A thorough knowledge of the eventual persistence of pathogens in deaths related to infectious diseases is fundamental for the safety of the operators during the autopsy practice, especially when referring to emergent pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2. Our study highlights the importance in performing multiple swabs in the postmortem examination, because SARS-CoV-2 swab positivity can be limited to only a single swab.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
17.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(12): 1390-1395, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be a life-saving treatment against recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). It is therefore necessary to maintain this procedure available for these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic while keeping high efficacy and safety standards. AIMS: To report outcomes of a FMT service that has adapted its operational workflow during COVID-19 pandemic to continue offering FMT to patients with CDI. METHODS: All patients with CDI referred to our center for FMT during pandemic were prospectively included. Each step of the FMT working protocol was adapted with specific security measures to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 26 patients evaluated for FMT, 21 were treated for recurrent or refractory CDI. Eighteen patients completed the 8-week follow-up, and no one recurred after FMT. Follow-up is ongoing in 3 patients, although in all of them diarrhea disappeared after the first procedure. No serious adverse events were reported. Two patients had also COVID-19-related pneumonia, and were cured both from CDI and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to show that it is possible to maintain standard volumes, efficacy and safety of FMT for recurrent CDI during the COVID-19 pandemic, by adopting specific changes in the operational workflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Gastroenterology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Donor Selection , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Quarantine , Recurrence , Specimen Handling/methods , Workflow , Young Adult
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1899-1913, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. Machine learning (random forest)-based and Cox survival analysis. 61.7% of participants were men (median age 67 years), followed up for a median of 13 days. In-hospital mortality exhibited a geographical gradient, Northern Italian regions featuring more than twofold higher death rates as compared to Central/Southern areas (15.6% vs 6.4%, respectively). Machine learning analysis revealed that the most important features in death classification were impaired renal function, elevated C reactive protein and advanced age. These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18-44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9-7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5-3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L). No relation was found with obesity, tobacco use, cardiovascular disease and related-comorbidities. The associations between these variables and mortality were substantially homogenous across all sub-groups analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired renal function, elevated C-reactive protein and advanced age were major predictors of in-hospital death in a large cohort of unselected patients with COVID-19, admitted to 30 different clinical centres all over Italy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
19.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(3)2020 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750659

ABSTRACT

Coinfections with bacteria or fungi may be a frequent complication of COVID-19, but coinfections with Candida species in COVID-19 patients remain rare. We report the 53-day clinical course of a complicated type-2 diabetes patient diagnosed with COVID-19, who developed bloodstream infections initially due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, secondly due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and lastly due to a possibly fatal Candida glabrata. The development of FKS-associated pan-echinocandin resistance in the C. glabrata isolated from the patient after 13 days of caspofungin treatment aggravated the situation. The patient died of septic shock shortly before the prospect of receiving potentially effective antifungal therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and monitoring for antimicrobial drug-resistant coinfections to reduce their unfavorable outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742541

ABSTRACT

In the face of the rapid evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare professionals on the frontline are in urgent need of frequent updates in the accomplishment of their practice. Hence, clinicians started to search for prompt, valid information on sources that are parallel to academic journals. Aim of this work is to investigate the extent of this phenomenon. We administered an anonymous online cross-sectional survey to 645 Italian clinicians. Target of the survey were all medical figures potentially involved in the management of COVID-19 cases. 369 questionnaires were returned. 19.5% (n = 72) of respondents were younger than 30 years-old; 49,3% (n = 182) worked in Infectious Diseases, Internal Medicine or Respiratory Medicine departments, 11.5% (n = 42) in Intensive Care Unit and 7.4% (n = 27) were general practitioner. 70% (n = 261) of respondents reported that their use of social media to seek medical information increased during the pandemic. 39.3% (n = 145) consistently consulted Facebook groups and 53.1% (n = 196) Whatsapp chats. 47% (n = 174) of respondents reported that information shared on social media had a consistent impact on their daily practice. In the present study, we found no difference in social media usage between age groups or medical specialties. Given the urgent need for scientific update during the present pandemic, these findings may help understanding how clinicians access new evidences and implement them in their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Information Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Information Dissemination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Diffusion of Innovation , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
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