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1.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are suggested to have a higher incidence of thrombotic events such as acute ischemic strokes (AIS). This study aimed at exploring vascular comorbidity patterns among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with subsequent stroke. We also investigated whether the comorbidities and their frequencies under each subclass of TOAST criteria were similar to the AIS population studies prior to the pandemic. METHODS: This is a report from the Multinational COVID-19 Stroke Study Group. We present an original dataset of SASR-CoV-2 infected patients who had a subsequent stroke recorded through our multicenter prospective study. In addition, we built a dataset of previously reported patients by conducting a systematic literature review. We demonstrated distinct subgroups by clinical risk scoring models and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, including hierarchical K-Means (ML-K) and Spectral clustering (ML-S). RESULTS: This study included 323 AIS patients from 71 centers in 17 countries from the original dataset and 145 patients reported in the literature. The unsupervised clustering methods suggest a distinct cohort of patients (ML-K: 36% and ML-S: 42%) with no or few comorbidities. These patients were more than 6 years younger than other subgroups and more likely were men (ML-K: 59% and ML-S: 60%). The majority of patients in this subgroup suffered from an embolic-appearing stroke on imaging (ML-K: 83% and ML-S: 85%) and had about 50% risk of large vessel occlusions (ML-K: 50% and ML-S: 53%). In addition, there were two cohorts of patients with large-artery atherosclerosis (ML-K: 30% and ML-S: 43% of patients) and cardioembolic strokes (ML-K: 34% and ML-S: 15%) with consistent comorbidity and imaging patterns. Binominal logistic regression demonstrated that ischemic heart disease (odds ratio (OR), 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-14.7), atrial fibrillation (OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 4.8-40.8), and active neoplasm (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.4-36.2) were associated with cardioembolic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Although a cohort of young and healthy men with cardioembolic and large vessel occlusions can be distinguished using both clinical sub-grouping and unsupervised clustering, stroke in other patients may be explained based on the existing comorbidities.

3.
J Neurol Sci ; 419: 117183, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 induced coagulopathy can lead to thrombotic complications such as stroke. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a less common type of stroke which might be triggered by COVID-19. We present a series of CVST cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In a multinational retrospective study, we collected all cases of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to nine tertiary stroke centers from the beginning of the pandemic to June 30th, 2020. We compared the demographics, clinical and radiological characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of these patients with a control group of non-SARS-CoV-2 infected CVST patients in the same seasonal period of the years 2012-2016 from the country where the majority of cases were recruited. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (62% women, mean age 50.9 ± 11.2 years). Six patients were discharged with good outcomes (mRS ≤ 2) and three patients died in hospital. Compared to the control group, the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were significantly older (50.9 versus 36.7 years, p < 0.001), had a lower rate of identified CVST risk factors (23.1% versus 84.2%, p < 0.001), had more frequent cortical vein involvement (38.5% versus 10.5%, p: 0.025), and a non-significant higher rate of in-hospital mortality (23.1% versus 5.3%, p: 0.073). CONCLUSION: CVST should be considered as potential comorbidity in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Our data suggest that compared to non-SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, CVST occurs in older patients, with lower rates of known CVST risk factors and might lead to a poorer outcome in the SARS-CoV-2 infected group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thrombophilia/etiology
4.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 228-243, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is occasionally associated with manifold diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We sought to present the neuroimaging features of such CNS involvement. In addition, we sought to identify typical neuroimaging patterns that could indicate possible COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations. METHODS: In this systematic literature review, typical neuroimaging features of cerebrovascular diseases and inflammatory processes associated with COVID-19 were analyzed. Reports presenting individual patient data were included in further quantitative analysis with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 115 studies reporting a total of 954 COVID-19 patients with associated neurological manifestations and neuroimaging alterations. A total of 95 (82.6%) of the identified studies were single case reports or case series, whereas 660 (69.2%) of the reported cases included individual information and were thus included in descriptive statistical analysis. Ischemia with neuroimaging patterns of large vessel occlusion event was revealed in 59.9% of ischemic stroke patients, whereas 69.2% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibited bleeding in a location that was not associated with hypertension. Callosal and/or juxtacortical location was identified in 58.7% of cerebral microbleed positive images. Features of hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis were detected in 28.8% of patients with meningo-/encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Manifold CNS involvement is increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. Typical and atypical neuroimaging features have been observed in some disease entities, so that familiarity with these imaging patterns appears reasonable and may assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 CNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102939, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. METHODS: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. FINDINGS: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. INTERPRETATION: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers
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