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1.
International journal of general medicine ; 15:7547-7558, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045436

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective The COVID-19 pandemic imposed global concern and became one of the deadliest pandemics of the twenty-first century. Several vaccines were developed against SARS-CoV-2 to counteract the effects of this virus. This study aims to determine the post-vaccination side effects of the most common COVID-19 vaccines used in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire distributed randomly through social media. Frequencies were calculated to determine participants’ demographic information, vaccination details, and post-vaccination side effects. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were applied to test the association between individuals’ willingness to receive a booster dose and different categorical variables. Results A total of 1004 participants were included in the survey, of which 0.6%, 85.3% and 14.1% completed either one, two or three doses of the Pfizer mRNA vaccine and Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines, respectively. The similar common side effects between the first and the second doses were significantly associated with the type of vaccine received;these included fatigue (Pfizer 54.4%, Oxford 73.2%;p < 0.001), headache (Pfizer 33.2%, Oxford 44.7%;p = 0.002), and fever (Pfizer 25.1%, Oxford 57.6%;p < 0.001). Additionally, unusual side effects were also reported (palpitations and menstrual abnormalities). Getting SARS-CoV2 infection after vaccination was significantly associated with the type of vaccine received at the first dose (Chi-Square=5.496, p = 0.019). A statistically significant association was found between the individuals’ willingness to receive a booster dose and their gender (Chi-Square = 39.493, p < 0.001), age (Chi-Square = 11.668, p = 0.02), presence of allergies (Chi-Square = 5.602, p = 0.018), and previous COVID-19 infection (Chi-Square = 9.495, p = 0.002). Conclusion Despite the described side effects, further studies should be done to investigate the unusual and rare side effects to assess COVID-19 vaccines effectiveness and safety over longer period of time within a more diverse population.

2.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388436

ABSTRACT

Analysis of 772 complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from early in the Boston-area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, whereas other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed substantially in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying transmission dynamics in superspreading events. Our results show how genomic epidemiology can help to understand the link between individual clusters and wider community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans
3.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 21(5):614, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1201804

ABSTRACT

[...]one of the world's most prominent global health advocates, he started this journey in 1987 by co-founding Partners in Health, a non-governmental organisation delivering care to the world's poorest by partnering with local governments. Over time, he came to lead pioneering efforts in health system strengthening in such settings that have had a remarkable impact. Colonial players invested in railroads rather than health care and health infrastructure for the locals, setting the stage for Ebola's catastrophic destruction decades later.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Patient Acuity , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Creatine Kinase/blood , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/virology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Rate , Thromboembolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
5.
Science ; 370(6515): 494, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043795
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