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1.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare ; 15:1595-1618, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968917

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has transformed our appreciation of healthcare awareness worldwide. The amount of related data accumulated during this time has surpassed any other outbreak of a viral pathogen. Healthcare awareness is related to one of the nine pillars of the “World health organization (WHO) operational planning guidelines to support country preparedness and response”. This review is structured around the awareness/knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP)-related publications in Saudi Arabia up to date to understand the impact of COVID-19 on these domains. The excellent communication effort response from governments, international, and individuals to keep the public informed about the outbreak is highlighted. Unraveling such impacts on the Saudi communities, including healthcare workers (HCWs)/professionals (HCPs), students, patients with different diseases, and non-professional individuals, is essential in containing the outbreak and planning preventive measures in case of future outbreaks.

2.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1869113

ABSTRACT

Background: The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is recognized to be the fundamental receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), responsible for the worldwide Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, genetic differences between people besides racial considerations and their relation to disease susceptibility are still not fully elucidated. Main body: To uncover the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 infection, we reviewed the published studies that explore the association of COVID-19 with the functional characteristics of ACE2 and its genetic variations. Notably, emerging studies tried to determine whether the ACE2 variants and/or expression could be associated with SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV2 have conflicting results. Some researchers investigated the potential of “population-specific” ACE2 genetic variations to impact the SARS-CoV2 vulnerability and suggested no ethnicity enrichment for ACE2 polymorphisms that could influence SARS-CoV2 S-protein binding. At the same time, some studies use data mining to predict several ACE2 variants that could enhance or decline susceptibility to SARS-CoV. On the other hand, fewer studies revealed an association of ACE2 expression with COVID-19 outcome reporting higher expression levels of ACE2 in East Asians. Conclusions: ACE2 gene variants and expression may modify the deleterious consequences of SARS-CoV2 to the host cells. It is worth noting that apart from the differences in gene expression and the genetic variations of ACE2, many other environmental and/or genetic factors could modify the disease outcome, including the genes for the innate and the adaptive immune response.

3.
Neurosurg Focus ; 51(6): E6, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite tremendous advancements in biomedical science and surgical technique, spine surgeries are still associated with considerable rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Multiple novel techniques have been employed in recent years to adequately treat spinal diseases while mitigating the perioperative morbidity associated with traditional spinal surgery. Some of these techniques include minimally invasive methods and novel anesthetic and analgesic methods. In recent years, awake spine surgery with spinal anesthesia has gained attention as an alternative to general anesthesia (GA). In this study, the authors retrospectively reviewed a single-institution Egyptian experience with awake spine surgery using spinal anesthesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Overall, 149 patients who were admitted to As-Salam International Hospital in Cairo for lumbar and lower thoracic spine surgeries, between 2019 and 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics and comorbidities were collected and analyzed. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were assessed at different time intervals including preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 1 year postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was queried through a questionnaire assessing patient preference for traditional anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. RESULTS: Of the 149 patients who successfully received spine surgery with spinal anesthesia, there were 49 males and 100 females. The cohort age ranged from 22 to 85 years with a mean of 47.5 years. The operative time ranged from 45 to 300 minutes with a mean estimated blood loss (EBL) of 385 ± 156 mL. No major cardiopulmonary or intraoperative complications occurred, and patients were able to eat immediately after surgery. Patients were able to ambulate without an assistive device 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Decompression and fusion patients were discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3, respectively. VAS and ODI scores demonstrated excellent pain relief, which was maintained at the 1-year postoperative follow-up. No 30- or 90-day readmissions were recorded. Of 149 patients, 124 were satisfied with spinal anesthesia and would recommend spinal anesthesia to other patients. The remaining patients were not satisfied with spinal anesthesia but reported being pleased with their postoperative clinical and functional outcomes. One patient was converted to GA due to the duration of the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received spinal anesthesia for awake spine surgery experienced short stays in the hospital, no readmissions, patient satisfaction, and well-controlled pain. The results of this study have validated the growing body of literature that demonstrates that awake spine surgery with spinal anesthesia is safe and associated with superior outcomes compared with traditional GA. Additionally, the ability to address chronic debilitating conditions, such as spinal conditions, with minimal use of valuable resources, such as ventilators, proved useful during the COVID-19 pandemic and could be a model should other stressors on healthcare systems arise, especially in developing areas of the world.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , COVID-19 , Spinal Fusion , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Wakefulness , Young Adult
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
5.
Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

6.
Ind. Syst. Eng. Conf., ISEC ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-972076

ABSTRACT

People have become addicted to their electronic devices spending more time playing video games. This addiction could be due to the attractive and rapid development in technology of devices. Additionally, home quarantine precaution imposed by the COVID 19 pandemic increased one's connection to electronic devices. These reasons and much more affected the educational methodology landscape. On the other hand, old teaching techniques especially in the engineering education nowadays are not fulfilling the market needs [1], [2]. Engineers are required to be up to date as market requirements changes [3]. More practical teaching methods are expected to prepare fresh graduate engineers to the market [1]. These practical skills should be developed in safe environments with an economic, and more engaging ways to engineering students. With the help of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, this goal could be achieved [4]. This research aims to develop a VR game that meets these needs. This work focuses on understanding the system requirements of the VR game for engineering education using engineering ethics as a case study. Requirements investigation, understanding, and documentation are done using Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools. As a result, the system's requirements are identified with seven logical models and an initial physical model. Consequently, three entities are identified for this VR game: learners, instructor and advisor. Entities relationships also have been demarcated. Future work includes the models' validation, game prototyping, and implementation using learners and educators' feedbacks on the proposed VR game. © 2020 IEEE.

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