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1.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 6: e2100200, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This is an update to a previously published report characterizing the impact that efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic have had on the normal course of cancer-related encounters. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 22 US health care organizations (members of the TriNetX global network) having relevant, up-to-date encounter data. Although the original study compared encounter data pre-COVID-19 (January-April 2019) with the corresponding months in 2020, this update considers data through April 2021. As before, cohorts were generated for all neoplasm patients (malignant, benign, in situ, and of unspecified behavior), all new incidence neoplasm patients, exclusively malignant neoplasm patients, and new incidence malignant neoplasm patients. Data on the initial cancer stage were available for calendar year 2020 from about one third of the study's organizations. RESULTS: Although COVID-19 cases fluctuated through 2021, newly diagnosed cancers closely paralleled the prepandemic base year 2019. Similarly, screening for breast, colorectal, and cervical cancers quickly recovered beginning in May 2020 to prepandemic numbers. Preliminary data for the initial cancer stage showed no significant difference (P > .10) in distribution for breast or colon cancers between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSION: Although the number of COVID-19 cases fluctuated, the steep declines observed during March and April 2020 in screening for breast and colon cancer and patients with newly diagnosed cancer did not continue through the rest of 2020 and into April 2021. Screening and new incidence cancer numbers quickly rose compared with prepandemic levels. The concern that more patients with advanced-stage cancer would be seen in the months following the drastic dips of March-April 2020 was not realized as the major disruption to normal cancer care was limited to these 2 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13679, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a wide spectrum of cardiovascular sequelae including myocarditis and pericarditis; however, the prevalence and clinical impact are unclear. We investigated the prevalence of new-onset myocarditis/pericarditis and associated adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from a global federated health research network. Patients were included based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 and new-onset myocarditis or pericarditis. Patients with COVID-19 and myocarditis/pericarditis were 1:1 propensity score matched for age, sex, race and comorbidities to patients with COVID-19 but without myocarditis/pericarditis. The outcomes of interest were 6-month all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, cardiac arrest, incident heart failure, incident atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction, comparing patients with and without myocarditis/pericarditis. Of 718,365 patients with COVID-19, 35,820 (5.0%) developed new-onset myocarditis and 10,706 (1.5%) developed new-onset pericarditis. Six-month all-cause mortality was 3.9% (n = 702) in patients with myocarditis and 2.9% (n = 523) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.53). Six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (n = 816) for pericarditis and 6.7% (n = 356) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 2.55 (95% CI: 2.24-2.91). Receiving critical care was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality for patients with myocarditis and pericarditis. Patients with pericarditis seemed to associate with more new-onset cardiovascular sequelae than those with myocarditis. This finding was consistent when looking at pre-COVID-19 data with pneumonia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who present with myocarditis/pericarditis associate with increased odds of major adverse events and new-onset cardiovascular sequelae.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/complications , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
5.
Thromb Res ; 205: 1-7, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use before hospitalization due to COVID-19 diagnosis would potentially impact the severity and clinical outcomes thereafter. We compared 30-day hospitalization/re-hospitalization and clinical outcomes between patients on chronic DOAC therapy and patients not on oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Patients aged ≥18 years who were treated with DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20 January 2020 and 28 February 2021 were included, and matched with patients not on OAC therapy from the same period. All patients were followed-up at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalization/re-hospitalization, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). RESULTS: 738,423 patients were included. After propensity score matching (PSM), 26,006 patients remained in the study (13,003 on DOACs; 13,003 not on OAC). DOAC-treated patients (mean age 67.1 ± 15.4 years, 52.2% male) had higher relative risks (RRs) and lower 30-days event-free survival as compared to patients not on OAC for all-cause mortality (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44; Log-Rank test p = 0.010), hospitalization/re-hospitalization (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.64-1.82; Log-Rank test p < 0.001) and VTE (RR 4.51, 95% CI 3.91-5.82; Log-Rank test p < 0.001), but not for ICH (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.54-1.51; Log-Rank test p = 0.513). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients, previous DOAC therapy at time of diagnosis was not associated with improved clinical outcomes or lower hospitalization/re-hospitalization rate compared to patients not taking OAC therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
6.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 326-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop thrombosis and thrombosis-related complications. Some previous evidence has suggested COVID-19-associated strokes are more severe with worse outcomes for patients, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between COVID-19 and mortality for patients with ischaemic stroke in a large multicentre study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records of inpatients from 50 healthcare organizations, predominately from the USA. Patients with ischaemic stroke within 30 days of COVID-19 were identified. COVID-19 was determined from diagnosis codes or a positive test result identified with CO-VID-19-specific laboratory codes between January 20, 2020, and October 1, 2020. Historical controls with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 were identified in the period January 20, 2019, to October 1, 2019. 1:1 propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts with and without CO-VID-19 on characteristics including age, sex, race and comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for all-cause 60-day mortality by COVID-19 status were produced. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 954 inpatients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19. During the same time period in 2019, there were 48,363 inpatients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 (historical controls). Compared to patients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19, patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 had a lower mean age, had a lower prevalence of white patients, a higher prevalence of black or African American patients and a higher prevalence of hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, neoplasms, and mental disorders due to known physiological conditions. After propensity score matching, there were 952 cases and 952 historical controls; cases and historical controls were better balanced on all included characteristics (all p > 0.05). After propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the survival probability was significantly lower in ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 (78.3% vs. 91.0%, log-rank test p < 0.0001). The odds of 60-day mortality were significantly higher for patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 compared to the propensity score-matched historical controls (odds ratio: 2.51 [95% confidence interval 1.88-3.34]). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher 60-day all-cause mortality compared to propensity score-matched historical controls (ischaemic stroke patients without COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 657-665, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099904

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While there are studies under way to characterize the direct effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of patients with cancer, there have been few quantitative reports of the impact that efforts to control the pandemic have had on the normal course of cancer diagnosis and treatment encounters. METHODS: We used the TriNetX platform to analyze 20 health care institutions that have relevant, up-to-date encounter data. Using this COVID and Cancer Research Network (CCRN), we compared cancer cohorts identified by querying encounter data pre-COVID (January 2019-April 2019) and current (January 2020-April 2020). Cohorts were generated for all patients with neoplasms (malignant, benign, in situ, and of unspecified behavior), with new incidence neoplasms (first encounter), with exclusively malignant neoplasms, and with new incidence malignant neoplasms. Data from a UK institution were similarly analyzed. Additional analyses were performed on patients with selected cancers, as well as on those having had cancer screening. RESULTS: Clear trends were identified that suggest a significant decline in all current cohorts explored, with April 2020 displaying the largest decrease in the number of patients with cancer having encounters. Of the cancer types analyzed, lung, colorectal, and hematologic cancer cohorts exhibited smaller decreases in size in April 2020 versus 2019 (-39.1%, -39.9%, -39.1%, respectively) compared with cohort size decreases for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma (-47.7%, -49.1%, -51.8%, respectively). In addition, cancer screenings declined drastically, with breast cancer screenings dropping by -89.2% and colorectal cancer screenings by -84.5%. CONCLUSION: Trends seen in the CCRN clearly suggest a significant decrease in all cancer-related patient encounters as a result of the pandemic. The steep decreases in cancer screening and patients with a new incidence of cancer suggest the possibility of a future increase in patients with later-stage cancer being seen initially as well as an increased demand for cancer screening procedures as delayed tests are rescheduled.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
9.
J Arrhythm ; 37(1): 231-237, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the outcomes of adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The objectives were to (i) examine associations between AF, 30-day thromboembolic events and mortality in adults with COVID-19 and (ii) examine associations between COVID-19, 30-day thromboembolic events and mortality in adults with AF. METHODS: A study was conducted using a global federated health research network. Adults aged ≥50 years who presented to 41 participating healthcare organizations between 20 January 2020 and 1 September 2020 with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: For the first objective, 6589 adults with COVID-19 and AF were propensity score matched for age, gender, race, and comorbidities to 6589 adults with COVID-19 without AF. The survival probability was significantly lower in adults with COVID-19 and AF compared to matched adults without AF (82.7% compared to 88.3%, Log-Rank test P < .0001; Risk Ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.61 (1.46, 1.78)) and risk of thromboembolic events was higher in patients with AF (9.9% vs 7.0%, Log-Rank test P < .0001; Risk Ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.41 (1.26, 1.59)). For the second objective, 2454 adults with AF and COVID-19 were propensity score matched to 2454 adults with AF without COVID-19. The survival probability was significantly lower for adults with AF and COVID-19 compared to adults with AF without COVID-19, but there was no significant difference in risk of thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: AF could be an important risk factor for short-term mortality with COVID-19, and COVID-19 may increase risk of short-term mortality amongst adults with AF.

11.
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003321, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of June 2020, there were nearly 7 million reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide and over 400,000 deaths in people with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to determine associations between comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index and mortality among patients in the United States with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 from 24 healthcare organizations in the US was conducted. The study included adults aged 18-90 years with COVID-19 coded in their electronic medical records between January 20, 2020, and May 26, 2020. Results were also stratified by age groups (<50 years, 50-69 years, or 70-90 years). A total of 31,461 patients were included. Median age was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35-63) and 54.5% (n = 17,155) were female. The most common comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index were chronic pulmonary disease (17.5%, n = 5,513) and diabetes mellitus (15.0%, n = 4,710). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed older age (odds ratio [OR] per year 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.07; p < 0.001), male sex (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.55-1.98; p < 0.001), being black or African American compared to white (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.31-1.71; p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.64-2.35; p < 0.001), congestive heart failure (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.67; p < 0.001), dementia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.56; p = 0.008), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08-1.43; p = 0.003), mild liver disease (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.59; p = 0.046), moderate/severe liver disease (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.53-4.47; p < 0.001), renal disease (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.84-2.46; p < 0.001), and metastatic solid tumor (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19-2.43; p = 0.004) were associated with higher odds of mortality with COVID-19. Older age, male sex, and being black or African American (compared to being white) remained significantly associated with higher odds of death in age-stratified analyses. There were differences in which comorbidities were significantly associated with mortality between age groups. Limitations include that the data were collected from the healthcare organization electronic medical record databases and some comorbidities may be underreported and ethnicity was unknown for 24% of participants. Deaths during an inpatient or outpatient visit at the participating healthcare organizations were recorded; however, deaths occurring outside of the hospital setting are not well captured. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying patient characteristics and conditions associated with mortality with COVID-19 is important for hypothesis generating for clinical trials and to develop targeted intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/classification , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
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