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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0220, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients according to the maximum degree of respiratory support received and report their inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Analysis of patients in the Coracle registry from February 22, 2020, to April 1, 2020. SETTING: Hospitals in the Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, and Lazio regions of Italy. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-eight patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) age was 65 years (54-76.59 yr), and there was evidence of differential respiratory treatment by decade of life (p = 0.0046); patients greater than 80 years old were generally not intubated. There were 606 men (63.9%) in this study, and they were more likely to receive respiratory support than women (p < 0.0001). The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither. Overall, invasive ventilation recipients who died were significantly older than those who survived (median age: 68.5 yr [60-81.36 yr] vs 62.5 yr [55.52-71 yr]; p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, 13% received mechanical ventilation, which was associated with a mortality rate of 23%.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 167: 133-138, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702670

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis; 100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic; 51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic; 49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Deprescriptions , Hospital Mortality , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318592

ABSTRACT

Background: Antecedent use of renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) appears crucial to prevent clinical deterioration and protect against cardiovascular and/or thrombotic complications of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), for indicated patients. Doubts have been raised about continuing treatment throughout infection, and nothing is known regarding its effect with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effect of RAASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. Methods: : We used the Coracle (epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and therapy in real life patients affected by Sars-Cov-2) multi-center registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We performed analyses on adult (50+ years) records with admission on/after February 22, 2020 with a known mortality or discharge status as of April 1, 2020. We constructed a multivariable Firth logistic regression model to complete our objective. Results: : There were 286 patients in this analysis. Overall, 100 (35.0%) patients continued RAASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients who were treated with a diuretic;51 (52%) of those continued RAASi. The in-hospital mortality rates among patients treated with a diuretic and continued vs. discontinued RAASi were 7.8% vs 25.5% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients who were not treated with a diuretic;49 (26.1%) of those continued RAASi. The in-hospital mortality rates among patients who were not treated with a diuretic and continued vs. discontinued RAASi were 16.3% vs 9.4% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, congestive heart failure, and coronary heart disease/ischemic heart disease, continuing RAASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.08 – 0.94, p = 0.0391) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients who were not treated with diuretics. Conclusion: Diuretic use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were on RAASi prior to admission was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Whether this combined therapy increases risk or is the reflection of a more severe presentation deserves further investigation. Continuing RAASi therapy in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.

5.
The American journal of cardiology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615312

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis;100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic;51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic;49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.

6.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602422

ABSTRACT

Aims Significant concern has been raised about the effect of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV therapies on COVID-19 course. On the other hand, COVID-19 could worse pre-existing CVD or trigger the development of new-onset CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and CV therapy with the clinical course of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods and results Consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to the Cardiovascular COVID-19 Unit at Policlinico Umberto I of Rome between December 2020 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients underwent a cardiovascular evaluation including troponin, electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiogram. Data on medical history, pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and therapy were collected. Admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU), as well as the development of new-onset CVD, were considered as endpoint of the study. Among n = 229 patients enrolled, 22 (10%) died. Nearly half of patients (112, 49%) were admitted to the ICU/CICU. The presence of prior ischaemic heart disease nearly doubled the probability of hospitalization in the ICU/CICU (HR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.132–3.866, P 0.018). In regards of therapy, beta blockers reduced the likelihood of admission in the ICU/CICU (HR: −1016, 95% CI: 0.192–10.682, P 0.002). However, neither the use of RAAS blockers, heparin or dexamethasone influenced the risk of ICU/CICU admission (respectively, HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.498–1.450, P 0.551;HR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.435–1.356, P 0.363;HR: 0.861, 95% CI: 0.453–1.635, P 0.647). N = 89 patients (39%) experienced a new onset CVD including arrythmias (18.3%) with nearly half experiencing atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome (10.9%), acute pulmonary embolism (5.3%), heart failure (HF) (3%), and myocarditis and pericarditis (1.3%). A pre-existing diagnosis of HF substantially increased the likelihood of new onset CVD (HR: 2.380, 95% CI: 1.004–5.638, P 0.049). However, treatment with heparin or dexamethasone reduced the risk of new onset CVD (HR: 0.482 95% CI: 0.268–0.867, P 0.015;HR: 0.487, 95% CI: 0.253–0.937, P 0.031, respectively). Conclusions Our study found that hospitalized COVID-19 patients who have at least one CV risk factor or pre-existing CVD had a greater likelihood of being admitted to the ICU/CICU and experiencing new onset CVD.

7.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602407

ABSTRACT

Aims Remote monitoring (RM) has significantly transformed the standard of care for patients with cardiac electronic implantable devices. It provides easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device‐related issues, without the need of in‐person visits. Methods and results Starting 1 March, 332 patients were introduced to an RM programme during the Italian lockdown to limit the risk of in‐hospital exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus‐2. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the modality of RM delivery [home (n = 229) vs. office (n = 103) delivered]. The study aimed at assessing the efficacy of the new follow‐up protocol, assessed as mean RM activation time (AT), and the need for technical support. In addition, patients’ acceptance and anxiety status were quantified via the Home Monitoring Acceptance and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7‐item scale. AT time was less than 48 h in 93% of patients and 7% of them required further technical support. Despite a higher number of trans‐telephonic technical support in the home‐delivered RM group, mean AT was similar between groups (1.33 ± 0.83 days in home‐delivered vs. 1.28 ± 0.81 days in office‐delivered patients;P = 0.60). A total of 28 (2.5%) urgent/emergent in‐person examinations were required. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached in both groups whereas anxiety status was higher in the office‐delivered group. Conclusions The adoption of RM resulted in high patient satisfaction, regardless of the modality of modem delivery;nonetheless, in‐office modem delivery was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms.

8.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602268

ABSTRACT

Aims During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in-person visits were reduced to prevent potential risk of exposure. Virtual visits (VVs) represent an innovative model to take care of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of VV in the management of CIED patients. Methods and results We performed a prospective study including all CIED patients who received a VV from July 2020 to July 2021. Blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and body weight were registered by the patient. Moreover, we sent to the patient a questionnaire to evaluate the patients’ satisfaction about VV. We enrolled 182 patients in the study period. The mean age of patients was 70.2 ± 13.5 years-old and the majority (61.1%) was male. In two cases, VVs were not performed due to technical issues. Overall, 70.9% of patients utilized a smartphone, while 20.1% and 9% used, respectively, a tablet or a personal computer. The mean duration of VV was 27.8 ± 7.8 min. Patients helped by a caregiver were 64 (35.2%). One urgent/emergent in‐person visit was performed in a patient with acute heart failure. Overall, VV was preferred to in-person evaluation. Conclusion VV is a safe and feasible approach to follow-up CIED patients. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached after VV. The use of VV has promising potential and should be implemented beyond COVID-19 period and integrated in the healthcare system as a new model of care.

9.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601919

ABSTRACT

Aims The outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced a reorganization of the healthcare system. In order to prevent potential risk of exposure, virtual visit (VV) has been implemented in the treatment and follow-up of COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of VV in the management of post COVID-19 cardiovascular patients. Methods and results We enrolled all patients with cardiovascular comorbidities tested negative for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and discharged from our Cardiology Department from January 2021 to June 2021. We scheduled a VV after 30 days from discharge to check the clinical status of the patients, optimize therapy, and establish a Follow-up protocol. Blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and body weight were registered. To evaluate the patients’ satisfaction of VV, a questionnaire was administered. We performed 25 VVs in the study period;the mean age of patients was 67.5 ± 15.6 and male were 15 (65.2%). The mean duration of VV was 25.9 ± 4.6 min. The caregiver had an active role in nine (36%) cases. No urgent/emergent in‐person examinations were performed. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached and VV was preferred to in-person evaluation. Conclusions VV visit was useful to Follow-up post COVID-19 cardiovascular patients. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached without jeopardizing quality of care.

10.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601783

ABSTRACT

Aims Cardiovascular sequelae in COVID-19 survivors remain largely unclear and can potentially go unrecognized. Reports on follow-up focused on cardiovascular evaluation after hospital discharge are currently scarce. Aim of this prospective study was to assess cardiovascular sequelae in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. Methods and results The study was conducted at ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome—Policlinico ‘Umberto I’. After 2 months from discharge, n = 230 COVID-19 survivors underwent a follow-up visit at a dedicated ‘post-COVID Outpatient Clinic’. A cardiovascular evaluation including electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography was performed. Further tests were requested when clinically indicated. Medical history, symptoms, arterial-blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography, and treatment of both in-hospital and follow-up evaluation were recorded. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed. A total of 36 (16%) COVID-19 survivors showed persistence or delayed onset of cardiovascular disease at 2-months follow-up visit. Persistent condition was recorded in 62% of survivors who experienced an in-hospital cardiovascular disease. Delayed cardiovascular involvement included: myocarditis, pericarditis, ventricular disfunction, new onset of systemic hypertension and arrhythmias. At 1-year telephone follow-up, 105 (45%) survivors reported persistent symptoms, with dyspnoea and fatigue being the most frequent. 60% of survivors showed persistent chest CT abnormalities and among those 28% complained of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms at long term follow-up. Conclusions Our preliminary data showed persistent or delayed onset of cardiovascular involvement (16%) at short-term follow-up and persistent symptoms (45%) at long-term follow-up. These findings suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.

11.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601782

ABSTRACT

Aims A possible interference between ACE-i or ARBs with ACE-2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 pathway has been raised. Despite data have shown no clinical impact of therapy with ACE-I or ARBs on COVID-19, these drugs are often discontinued upon hospitalization or diagnosis. To evaluate the effects of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and prior outpatient therapy with RAAS inhibitors on the chest CT severity score performed within 24 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (before stopping medications or starting specific therapy for COVID-19) and on 1-year survival. Methods and results This is a multicentre, prospective, observational study. All admitted patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection who performed chest CT within 24 h of arrival were consecutively enrolled from 1 March to 1 June 2020. A severity score was attributed to Chest CT by two radiologists in blind to the patient’s clinical information and a cut-off value of 19.5 was considered to define severe radiological pneumonia. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed in order to evaluate the determinants of 1-year survival. 590 patients with a mean age of 63 ± 14 years were included. Seventy-three (12.4%) patients were treated with ACE-I, 85 (14.4%) with ARBs and 62 (10.5%) with CCB. Cox regression analysis showed that male gender (OR: 1.4;95% CI: from 1.02 to 2.07;P = 0.035), diabetes (OR: 1.6;95% CI: from 1.03 to 2.7;P = 0.037), age (OR: 1.02;95% CI: from 1.008 to 1.033;P = 0.001), and obesity (OR: 3.04;95% CI: from 1.3 to 6.7;P < 0.001) were independently associated with a severe CT score. Of note, while prior outpatient therapy with ACE-I and ARBs was not independently associated with severe CT score, therapy with CCB was independently associated with a severe CT score (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: from 1.05 to 3.4, P = 0.033). Severe chest CT severity score (OR: 1.05;95% CI: from 1.02 to 1.08;P < 0.001), P/F ratio (OR: 0.998;95% CI: from 0.994 to 0.998;P < 0.001), and older age (OR: 1.06;95% CI: from 1.03 to 1.1;P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality at 1-year follow-up. Neither ACE-I, ARBs, and CCB were associated with mortality at 1 year follow-up. Conclusions ACE-I and ARBs do not influence the chest CT presentation of COVID-19 patients at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore, ACE-I and ARBs do not influence 1-year survival of COVID-19 survivors.

12.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601776

ABSTRACT

Aims During the COVID-19 pandemic in-person visits for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices should be replaced by remote monitoring (RM), in order to prevent viral transmission. A direct home-delivery service of the RM communicator has been implemented at 49 Italian arrhythmia centres. Methods and results According to individual patient preference or the organizational decision of the centre, patients were assigned to the home-delivery group or the standard in-clinic delivery group. In the former case, patients received telephone training on the activation process and use of the communicator. In June 2020, the centres were asked to reply to an ad hoc questionnaire to describe and evaluate their experience in the previous 3 months. RM was activated in 1324 patients: 821 (62%) received the communicator at home and the communicator was activated remotely. Activation required one additional call in 49% of cases, and the median time needed to complete the activation process was 15 min (25th–75th percentile: 10–20). 753 (92%) patients were able to complete the correct activation of the system. At the time when the questionnaire was completed, 743 (90%) communicators were regularly transmitting data. The service was generally deemed useful (96% of respondents) in facilitating the activation of RM during the COVID-19 pandemic and possibly beyond. Conclusions Home delivery of the communicator proved to be a successful approach to system activation, and received positive feedback from clinicians. The increased use of a RM protocol will reduce risks for both providers and patients, while maintaining high-quality care.

13.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601695

ABSTRACT

Aims Following the COVID‐19 pandemic‐related lockdown period in Italy, people have experienced psycho-physical distress. Many hospitals were converted in COVID-19 healthcare places and many specialist outpatient’s services were drastically reduced. Virtual visits may represent a strategy to overcome the lack of HF outpatient’s services, during this period. Our own experience underlines the importance of virtual visits to face the clinical and health status deterioration, associated with COVID-19, in HF outpatients. Methods and results We conducted an observational study, enrolling consecutive HF outpatients, previously hospitalized at the Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiology and Cardiovascular Sciences of Sapienza University of Rome, who were discharged within 31 March 2019, and 30 April 2019. Two follow-up periods were scheduled: (i) within 20–30 days after the beginning of lockdown (ii) at 3 months after lockdown’s end. Virtual visits were conducted through telephone, assessing changes in clinical and health status;the latter was assessed through the short version of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). According to the presence of at least one sign of HF deterioration, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: patients who experienced a modification in at least one clinical parameter suggestive of HF deterioration. Group 2: patients who do not experienced any modification of HF deterioration clinical parameter. KCCQ-12 mean scores were compared between the two groups, at both scheduled virtual visits, in order to evaluate any change in HF outpatients’ health status, during and after the COVID-19-related-lockdown. 160 HF outpatients have been included in the study: 63 in the group 1, 97 in the group 2. At the first virtual visit, group 1 reported significantly lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [46.2 (±14.6) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% 11.6 to − 3.6;P = 0.0003]. At the second virtual visit, group 1 patients reported a slightly, but not statistically significant, lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [52.2 (± 13.3) vs. 53.1(±14.4);95% CI: −5.4 to 3.6;P = 0.69]. Comparing the KCCQ-12 mean scores of each group between the two scheduled virtual visits, group 1 reported a statistically significant increase at the second visit, compared to the first [52.2 (±13.3) vs. 46.2 (±14.6);CI: 95% 1.1–11;P = 0.017]. Group 2 showed no statistically significant variation of mean KCCQ-12 score between the two follow-up periods [53.1 (±14.4) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% −4.3 to 3;P = 0.704]. Conclusions we observed a significant worsening of health status in HF outpatients who have experienced clinical deterioration. Therefore, patients were either hospitalized or received the optimization of diuretic and anti-hypertensive therapies. A significant health status improvement was observed at three months after the end of the lockdown, suggesting the importance of virtual visit as an adequate method to follow-up HF outpatients, reporting particular benefits in those with worsening of HF clinical signs and health status.

14.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 125-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487632

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic, patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) refused scheduled follow-up visits because of the risk of infection. In this scenario, different telemedicine strategies have been implemented to ensure continuity of care to CIED patients. Patients can be monitored through dedicated applications, telephone calls, or virtual visits providing easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device-related issues, without the need for in-person visits. This review provides a comprehensive description of the many possible applications of telemedicine for CIED patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pacemaker, Artificial , Telemedicine , Electronics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 68, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of myocardial involvement can be relevant in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to timely target symptomatic treatment and decrease the occurrence of the cardiac sequelae of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in characterizing myocardial damage in active COVID-19 patients, through the correlation between qualitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers with clinical and laboratory evidence of myocardial injury. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 27 patients with diagnosis of active COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement, referred to our institution for CMR between March 2020 and January 2021. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), and CMR imaging data were obtained. Relationships between CMR parameters, clinical and laboratory findings were explored. Comparisons were made with age-, sex- and risk factor-matched control group of 27 individuals, including healthy controls and patients without other signs or history of myocardial disease, who underwent CMR examination between January 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR examination was 20 (13.5-31.5) days. Hs-cTnT values were collected within 24 h prior to CMR and resulted abnormally increased in 18 patients (66.6%). A total of 20 cases (74%) presented tissue signal abnormalities, including increased myocardial native T1 (n = 11), myocardial T2 (n = 14) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (n = 10), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 12) or pericardial enhancement (n = 2). A CMR diagnosis of myocarditis was established in 9 (33.3%), pericarditis in 2 (7.4%) and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries in 3 (11.11%) patients. T2 mapping values showed a moderate positive linear correlation with Hs-cTnT (r = 0.58; p = 0.002). A high degree positive linear correlation between ECV and Hs-cTnT was also found (r 0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CMR allows in vivo recognition and characterization of myocardial damage in a cohort of selected COVID-19 individuals by means of a multiparametric scanning protocol including conventional imaging and T1-T2 mapping sequences. Abnormal T2 mapping was the most commonly abnormality observed in our cohort and positively correlated with hs-cTnT values, reflecting the predominant edematous changes characterizing the active phase of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 235-237, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigations demonstrated a decrease of admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) during the CoronaVirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak. No study has evaluated the time required to reverse this downward curve of MI admissions. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis on patients (N = 2415) admitted to the Emergency Departments for acute MI in nine Italian centers. Primary endpoint was the incidence rates (IRs) of MI admissions in the post-lockdown COVID-19 period (case-period: from May 4 to July 12, 2020) vs. the following control periods: January 1-February 19, 2020 (pre-lockdown period); February 20-May 3, 2020 (intra-lockdown period); May 4-July 12, 2019 (inter-year non-COVID-19 period). RESULTS: IR of admissions for MI in the post-lockdown period was higher than the intra-lockdown period (IR ratio, IRR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.42-1.81; p = 0.0001), was lower than the pre-lockdown period (IRR: 0.86, 0.77-0.96; p = 0.009) and similar to the inter-year non-COVID-19 period (IRR: 0.96, 0.87-1.07; p = 0.47). Within the case period, the increase in MI admissions was more pronounced in earlier vs later weeks (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.024) and, compared to the inter-year control period, was significant for non ST-segment elevation MI (IRR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46, p = 0.004), but was not observed for ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), where hospitalizations were reduced (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.88, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study first indicates an increase in the number of admissions for MI after the removal of the national lockdown for COVID-19 in Italy. This increase was prevalent in the first weeks following the lockdown removal, but was under-represented in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(7): 728-731, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978588

ABSTRACT

We proposed a combined cardiothoracic-MRI (CaTh-MRI) protocol for the comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular structures, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary arterial tree, in COVID-19 patients with progressive worsening of clinical conditions and/or suspicion of acute-onset myocardial inflammation. A 25-minutes fast protocol was also conceived for unstable or uncooperative patients by restricting the number of sequences to those necessary to rule out myocardial and to assess pulmonary involvement. In patients requiring CMR characterization of myocardial damage, the addition of lung and thoracic vessel evaluation is of clinical benefit at a minimal time expense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 51: 107314, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve several organs and systems, often with indirect and poorly clarified mechanisms. Different presentations of myocardial injury have been reported, with variable degrees of severity, often impacting on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying cardiac damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection are under active investigation. We report the clinical and autopsy findings of a fatal case of Takotsubo Syndrome occurring in an 83-year-old patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was admitted to Emergency Department with dyspnea, fever and diarrhea. A naso-pharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. In the following week his conditions worsened, requiring intubation and deep sedation. While in the ICU, the patient suddenly showed ST segment elevation. Left ventricular angiography showed decreased with hypercontractile ventricular bases and mid-apical ballooning, consistent with diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome. Shortly after the patient was pulseless. After extensive resuscitation maneuvers, the patient was declared dead. Autopsy revealed a subepicardial hematoma, in absence of myocardial rupture. On histology, the myocardium showed diffuse edema, multiple foci of contraction band necrosis in both ventricles and occasional coagulative necrosis of single cardiac myocytes. Abundant macrophages CD68+ were detected in the myocardial interstitium. The finding of diffuse contraction band necrosis supports the pathogenic role of increased catecholamine levels; the presence of a significant interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, made up by macrophages, remains of uncertain significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardium/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/therapy
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