Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
International Journal of Drug Policy ; : 103842, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996114

ABSTRACT

Background . In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, overdose deaths increased. However, no studies have characterized changes in mortality during the pandemic in a well-characterized cohort of people who use drugs in active follow-up at the time of pandemic onset. Design . We compared all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the first year of the pandemic (Mar – Dec 2020) to the five years preceding (Jan 2015 – Feb 2020), among participants in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study: a community-recruited cohort of adults from Baltimore who have injected drugs. 3,510 participants contributed 17,498 person-years [py] of follow-up time. Cause and dates of death were ascertained through the National Death Index. Comparisons were made for the full cohort and within subgroups with potentially differential levels of vulnerability. Results . All-cause mortality in 2020 was 39.6 per 1,000 py, as compared to 37.2 per 1,000 py pre- pandemic (Adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.09, 95%: confidence interval: 0.84-1.41). Increases were mostly attributable to chronic disease deaths;injury/poisoning deaths did not increase. No pre-post differences were statistically significant. Conclusion . In this exploratory analysis of an older cohort of urban-dwelling adults who have injected drugs, mortality changes during the first year of the pandemic differed from national trends and varied across potentially vulnerable subgroups. More research is needed to understand determinants of increased risk of mortality during the pandemic among subgroups of people who use drugs.

2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 1031-1040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs are a population who are often unengaged with health care services. The objective of this study was to characterize COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake in a community-based sample of people who inject drugs in Baltimore, Maryland. METHODS: The ALIVE study (AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience) in Baltimore is a community-based cohort study of people with a history of injection drug use. From March 2 through June 28, 2021, 346 ALIVE participants completed a survey on substance use, structural determinants of health, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The exposure of interest was COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and the primary outcome was vaccination status as of June 30, 2021. We extracted data on the dates of vaccination from electronic medical records linked to study participants. RESULTS: The median age of the sample was 60 years; most participants were male (66%) and non-Hispanic Black (87%). Most (55%) trusted the COVID-19 vaccine, and 68% had received ≥1 dose. After age standardization, survey participants were more likely than the Maryland general population to be unvaccinated (prevalence ratio = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.97-1.49; P = .10). Participants who somewhat trusted or did not trust the COVID-19 vaccine had 6-fold higher odds of being unvaccinated than participants who trusted the vaccine (odds ratio = 6.30; 95% CI, 3.74-10.60). CONCLUSION: Uptake of COVID-19 vaccine among people with a history of injection drug use was high. Attitudes and knowledge about vaccination were important predictors of vaccine uptake. Education and outreach efforts could be effective in reducing hesitancy and increasing vaccination in substance-using populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Users , Vaccines , Baltimore/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 109544, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines individual-level factors associated with avoiding two important health services for people who use drugs-medications for treatment of opioid use disorder and syringe service programs-during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data come from two subsamples of people who use drugs who were active participants in one of nine cohort studies in Vancouver, British Columbia; Baltimore, Maryland; Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; and Miami, Florida. Participants were interviewed remotely about COVID-19-associated disruptions to healthcare. We estimated the association of demographic, social, and health factors with each outcome using logistic regression among 702 participants (medication analysis) and 304 participants (syringe service analysis.) Analyses were repeated, stratified by city of residence, to examine geographic variation in risk. RESULTS: There were large differences between cities in the prevalence of avoiding picking up medications for opioid use disorder, with almost no avoidance in Vancouver (3%) and nearly universal avoidance in Los Angeles, Chicago, and Miami (>90%). After accounting for between-city differences, no individual factors were associated with avoiding picking up medications. The only factor significantly associated with avoiding syringe service programs was higher levels of self-reported worry about COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, geographic differences in service and policy contexts likely influenced avoidance of health and harm reduction services by people who use drugs in the United States and Canada more than individual differences between people.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 2053-2056, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706795

ABSTRACT

Among 9048 people infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and May 2021 in Maryland, in regression-adjusted analysis, SARS-CoV-2 viruses carrying the spike protein mutation E484K were disproportionately prevalent among persons infected after full vaccination against COVID-19 compared with infected persons who were not fully vaccinated (aOR, 1.96; 95% CI: 1.36-2.83).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Maryland/epidemiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(11): 2053-2056, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393223

ABSTRACT

Among 9048 people infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and May 2021 in Maryland, in regression-adjusted analysis, SARS-CoV-2 viruses carrying the spike protein mutation E484K were disproportionately prevalent among persons infected after full vaccination against COVID-19 compared with infected persons who were not fully vaccinated (aOR, 1.96; 95% CI: 1.36-2.83).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Maryland/epidemiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(17): 627-631, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207941

ABSTRACT

In late January 2021, a clinical laboratory notified the Maryland Department of Health (MDH) that the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.351 had been identified in a specimen collected from a Maryland resident with COVID-19 (1). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 lineage was first identified in South Africa (2) and might be neutralized less effectively by antibodies produced after vaccination or natural infection with other strains (3-6). To limit SARS-CoV-2 chains of transmission associated with this index patient, MDH used contact tracing to identify the source of infection and any linked infections among other persons. The investigation identified two linked clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infection that included 17 patients. Three additional specimens from these clusters were sequenced; all three had the B.1.351 variant and all sequences were closely related to the sequence from the index patient's specimen. Among the 17 patients identified, none reported recent international travel or contact with international travelers. Two patients, including the index patient, had received the first of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series in the 2 weeks before their likely exposure; one additional patient had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5 months before exposure. Two patients were hospitalized with COVID-19, and one died. These first identified linked clusters of B.1.351 infections in the United States with no apparent link to international travel highlight the importance of expanding the scope and volume of genetic surveillance programs to identify variants, completing contact investigations for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and using universal prevention strategies, including vaccination, masking, and physical distancing, to control the spread of variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Humans , Maryland/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1074-1080, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695725

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, during the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe, a cluster of children with hyperinflammatory shock with features similar to Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome was reported in England* (1). The patients' signs and symptoms were temporally associated with COVID-19 but presumed to have developed 2-4 weeks after acute COVID-19; all children had serologic evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). The clinical signs and symptoms present in this first cluster included fever, rash, conjunctivitis, peripheral edema, gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and elevated markers of inflammation and cardiac damage (1). On May 14, 2020, CDC published an online Health Advisory that summarized the manifestations of reported multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), outlined a case definition,† and asked clinicians to report suspected U.S. cases to local and state health departments. As of July 29, a total of 570 U.S. MIS-C patients who met the case definition had been reported to CDC. A total of 203 (35.6%) of the patients had a clinical course consistent with previously published MIS-C reports, characterized predominantly by shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and markedly elevated inflammatory markers, and almost all had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. The remaining 367 (64.4%) of MIS-C patients had manifestations that appeared to overlap with acute COVID-19 (2-4), had a less severe clinical course, or had features of Kawasaki disease.§ Median duration of hospitalization was 6 days; 364 patients (63.9%) required care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and 10 patients (1.8%) died. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to expand in many jurisdictions, clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of MIS-C and report suspected cases to their state or local health departments; analysis of reported cases can enhance understanding of MIS-C and improve characterization of the illness for early detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL