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1.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.02.14.480353

ABSTRACT

The onset of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by the presence of afucosylated IgG1 responses against the viral spike (S) protein, which can trigger exacerbated inflammatory responses. Here, we studied IgG glycosylation after BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination to explore whether vaccine-induced S protein expression on host cells also generates afucosylated IgG1 responses. SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals initially showed a transient afucosylated anti-S IgG1 response after the first dose, albeit to a lower extent than severely ill COVID-19 patients. In contrast, previously infected, antigen-experienced individuals had low afucosylation levels, which slightly increased after immunization. Afucosylation levels after the first dose correlated with low fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) expression levels in a defined plasma cell subset. Remarkably, IgG afucosylation levels after primary vaccination correlated significantly with IgG levels after the second dose. Further studies are needed to assess efficacy, inflammatory potential, and protective capacity of afucosylated IgG responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome
2.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.11.18.21266442

ABSTRACT

Background Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) effector functions are impacted by the structure of fragment crystallizable (Fc) tail-linked N-glycans. Low fucosylation levels on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein specific (anti-S) IgG1 has been described as a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may lead to activation of macrophages via immune complexes thereby promoting inflammatory responses, altogether suggesting involvement of IgG1 Fc glycosylation modulated immune mechanisms in COVID-19. Methods In this prospective, observational single center cohort study, IgG1 Fc glycosylation was analyzed by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry following affinity capturing from serial plasma samples of 159 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Findings At baseline close to disease onset, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation was highly skewed when compared to total plasma IgG1. A rapid, general reduction in glycosylation skewing was observed during the disease course. Low anti-S IgG1 galactosylation and sialylation as well as high bisection were early hallmarks of disease severity, whilst high galactosylation and sialylation and low bisection were found in patients with low disease severity. In line with these observations, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation correlated with various inflammatory markers. Interpretation Association of low galactosylation, sialylation as well as high bisection with disease severity suggests that Fc-glycan modulated interactions contribute to disease mechanism. Further studies are needed to understand how anti-S IgG1 glycosylation may contributes to disease mechanism and to evaluate its biomarker potential. Funding This project received funding from the European Commission's Horizon2020 research and innovation program for H2020-MSCA-ITN IMforFUTURE, under grant agreement number 721815.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome
3.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.06.20249035

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in late 2019 and has caused a global health and economic crisis. The characterization of the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for serosurveillance purposes as well for treatment options such as transfusion with convalescent plasma or immunoglobin products derived from convalescent plasma. In this study, we measured antibody responses in 844 longitudinal samples from 151 RT-PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 convalescent adults during the first 34 weeks after onset of symptoms. All donors were seropositive at the first sampling moment and only one donor seroreverted during follow-up analysis. Anti-RBD IgG and anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels slowly declined with median half-lifes of 62 and 59 days during 2-5 months after symptom onset, respectively. The rate of decline of antibody levels diminished during extended follow-up. In addition, the magnitude of the IgG response correlated with neutralization capacity measured in a classic plaque reduction assay as well in our in-house developed competition assay. The result of this study gives valuable insight into the longitudinal response of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
4.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.13.190140

ABSTRACT

For yet unknown reasons, severely ill COVID-19 patients often become critically ill around the time of activation of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that anti-Spike IgG from serum of severely ill COVID-19 patients induces a hyper-inflammatory response by human macrophages, which subsequently breaks pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity and induces microvascular thrombosis. The excessive inflammatory capacity of this anti-Spike IgG is related to glycosylation changes in the IgG Fc tail. Moreover, the hyper-inflammatory response induced by anti-Spike IgG can be specifically counteracted in vitro by use of the active component of fostamatinib, an FDA- and EMA-approved therapeutic small molecule inhibitor of Syk. One sentence summaryAnti-Spike IgG promotes hyper-inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
5.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.06.17.20133793

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections often cause only mild disease that may evoke relatively low antibody titers compared to patients admitted to hospitals. Generally, total antibody bridging assays combine good sensitivity with high selectivity. Therefore, we developed sensitive total antibody bridging assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NP), in addition to conventional isotype-specific assays. Antibody kinetics was assessed in PCR-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n=41) and three populations of patients with COVID-19 symptoms not requiring hospital admission: PCR-confirmed convalescent plasmapheresis donors (n=182), PCR-confirmed hospital care workers (n=47), and a group of longitudinally sampled symptomatic individuals highly suspect of COVID-19 (n=14). In non-hospitalized patients, the antibody response to RBD is weaker but follows similar kinetics as has been observed in hospitalized patients. Across populations, the RBD bridging assay identified most patients correctly as seropositive. In 11/14 of the COVID-19-suspect cases, seroconversion in the RBD bridging assay could be demonstrated before day 12; NP antibodies emerged less consistently. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of finger prick sampling for antibody detection against SARS-CoV-2 using these assays. In conclusion, the developed bridging assays reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, and are therefore well-suited to conduct seroprevalence studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
6.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.18.099507

ABSTRACT

IgG antibodies are crucial for protection against invading pathogens. A highly conserved N-linked glycan within the IgG-Fc-tail, essential for IgG function, shows variable composition in humans. Afucosylated IgG variants are already used in anti-cancer therapeutic antibodies for their elevated binding and killing activity through Fc receptors (Fc{gamma}RIIIa). Here, we report that afucosylated IgG which are of minor abundance in humans ([~]6% of total IgG) are specifically formed against surface epitopes of enveloped viruses after natural infections or immunization with attenuated viruses, while protein subunit immunization does not elicit this low fucose response. This can give beneficial strong responses, but can also go awry, resulting in a cytokine-storm and immune-mediated pathologies. In the case of COVID-19, the critically ill show aggravated afucosylated-IgG responses against the viral spike protein. In contrast, those clearing the infection unaided show higher fucosylation levels of the anti-spike protein IgG. Our findings indicate antibody glycosylation as a potential factor in inflammation and protection in enveloped virus infections including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
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