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1.
Atmosphere ; 11(7), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-836237

ABSTRACT

Besides the predominant ways of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (namely, contacts and large droplets) the airborne one is increasingly taken into consideration as a result of latest research findings Nevertheless, this possibility has been already suggested by previous studies on other coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV To describe the state of the art of coronaviruses and airborne transmission, a systematic review was carried out using the PRISMA methodology Overall, 64 papers were selected and classified into three main groups: laboratory experiments (12 papers), air monitoring (22) and epidemiological and airflow model studies (30) The airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is suggested by the studies of the three groups, but none has yet obtained complete evidence The sampling and detection methods have not been validated, therefore monitoring results are affected by a possible underestimation Then, epidemiological investigations only hypothesize the airborne transmission as a possible explanation for some illness cases, but without estimating its attributable risk Nevertheless, while waiting for more evidence, it is urgent to base advice on preventive measures, such as the use of masks, safe distancing and air ventilation, on the precautionary principle

2.
Water Res ; 179: 115907, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175680

ABSTRACT

The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. Field studies have monitored coronaviruses in surface waters, sewage, slurry, and biosolids. Overall, at the lab scale, HCoVs or surrogates can survive for several days at 4 °C, however their persistence is lower compared with non-enveloped viruses and is strongly influenced by temperature and organic or microbial pollution. HCoVs have rarely been detected in field investigations, however may be due to the low recovery efficiency of the analytical methods. The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health
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