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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S22-S23, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746807


Background. Accurately identifying COVID-19 patients at-risk to deteriorate remains challenging. Dysregulated immune responses impact disease progression and development of life-threatening complications. Tools integrating host immune-protein expression have proven useful in determining infection etiology and hold potential for prognosticating disease severity. Methods. Adults with COVID-19 were enrolled at medical centers in Israel, Germany, and the United States (Figure 1). Severe outcome was defined as intensive care unit admission, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or death. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured using an analyzer providing values within 15 minutes (MeMed Key®). A signature indicating the likelihood of severe outcome was derived generating a score (0-100). Description of derivation cohort RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. Between March and November 2020, 518 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 were eligible, 29% meeting a severe outcome. Age ranged between 19-98 (median 61.5), with 59.1% male. Patients meeting severe outcomes exhibited higher levels of CRP and IP-10 and lower levels of TRAIL (Figure 2;p < 0.001). Likelihood of severe outcome increased significantly (p < 0.001) with higher scores. The signature's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.91). Performance was not confounded by age, sex, or comorbidities and was superior to IL-6 (AUC 0.77;p = 0.033) and CRP (AUC 0.78;p < 0.001). Clinical deterioration proximal to blood draw was associated with higher signature score. Scores of patients meeting a first outcome over 3 days after blood draw were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than scores of non-severe patients (Figure 3). Moreover, the signature differentiated patients who further deteriorated after meeting a severe outcome from those who improved (p = 0.004) and projected 14-day survival probabilities (p < 0.001;Figure 4). TRAIL, IP-10, CRP and the severity signature score are differentially expressed in severe and non-severe COVID-19 infection Dots represent patients and boxes denote median and interquartile range (IQR) The signature score of patients meeting a severe outcome on or after the day of blood draw is significantly (p < 0.001) higher than the signature score of non-severe patients. Dots represents patients and boxes denote median and IQR Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for signature score bins Conclusion. The derived signature combined with a rapid measurement platform has potential to serve as an accurate predictive tool for early detection of COVID-19 patients at risk for severe outcome, facilitating timely care escalation and de-escalation and appropriate resource allocation.