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Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 106: 110159, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899415


INTRODUCTION: It is known that viral infections are epidemiologically prevalent and some of them are harmful to the central nervous system (CNS) due to the development of neuropsychiatric syndromes which affect the cognitive, affective, behavioral and perceptual domains. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a comprehensive analysis of the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions of COVID-19 based on epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical foundations observed in previous and recent pandemic events, and also to make a proposition about effective therapeutic interventions to help tackle this serious public health problem, more specifically in its neuropsychiatric developments. METHOD: This current literature review has utilized literature reserves and scientific search engines MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. The search terms included, "SARS-CoV-2", "etiology," "psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions", "severe infections" "COVID-19". Specific choices of unique papers from each of the searches were identified. The inclusion criteria were relevance and availability of full-text. Papers were excluded on the basis of relevance and non-availability of full-text. Papers were identified in the general literature reserve as pertinent to the search terms. RESULTS: The main psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions analyzed were depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis, nonspecific neurological symptoms, delirium, cerebrovascular complications, encephalopathies, neuromuscular disorders, anosmia and ageusia. CONCLUSION: The psychiatric and neuropsychiatric symptoms of acute respiratory syndromes can appear during or after the infectious stage. Among the risk factors pointed out for such effects are the female gender, health professionals, presence of avascular necrosis and distressing pain.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res ; 37: 27-32, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437051


OBJECTIVE: To describe the main neurological manifestations related to coronavirus infection in humans. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was conducted regarding clinical studies on cases that had neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. The search was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and LILACS with the following keywords: "coronavirus" or "Sars-CoV-2" or "COVID-19" and "neurologic manifestations" or "neurological symptoms" or "meningitis" or "encephalitis" or "encephalopathy," following the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: Seven studies were included. Neurological alterations after CoV infection may vary from 17.3% to 36.4% and, in the pediatric age range, encephalitis may be as frequent as respiratory disorders, affecting 11 % and 12 % of patients, respectively. The Investigation included 409 patients diagnosed with CoV infection who presented neurological symptoms, with median age range varying from 3 to 62 years. The main neurological alterations were headache (69; 16.8 %), dizziness (57, 13.9 %), altered consciousness (46; 11.2 %), vomiting (26; 6.3 %), epileptic crises (7; 1.7 %), neuralgia (5; 1.2 %), and ataxia (3; 0.7 %). The main presumed diagnoses were acute viral meningitis/encephalitis in 25 (6.1 %) patients, hypoxic encephalopathy in 23 (5.6 %) patients, acute cerebrovascular disease in 6 (1.4 %) patients, 1 (0.2 %) patient with possible acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 1 (0.2 %) patient with acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and 2 (1.4 %) patients with CoV related to Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Coronaviruses have important neurotropic potential and they cause neurological alterations that range from mild to severe. The main neurological manifestations found were headache, dizziness and altered consciousness.

Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112945, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46892


BACKGROUND: Insufficient housing quality is associated with stress and mental health impacts. Crowding, pollution, noise, inadequate lighting, lack of access to green spaces, and other environmental factors associated with slums can exacerbate mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, violence, and other forms of social dysfunction. METHOD: The studies were identified using large-sized newspapers with international circulation. RESULTS: Experts say that people who sleep in shelters or on the streets already have lower life expectancy, suffer from addiction, and have underlying health conditions that put them at greater risk should they develop the virus. There are just so many competing and unmet needs, which makes it much harder for homeless to contend with all of this. If exposed, people experiencing homelessness might be more susceptible to illness or death due to the prevalence of underlying physical and mental medical conditions and a lack of reliable and affordable health care. Nevertheless, without an urgent solution, people experiencing homelessness will remain in limbo. CONCLUSIONS: Many people living on the streets already have a diminished health condition, higher rates of chronic illnesses or compromised immune systems, all of which are risk factors for developing a more serious manifestation of the coronavirus infection. Those suffering from mental illness may have difficulty in recognizing and responding to the threat of infection. Homeless people have less access to health care providers who could otherwise order diagnostic testing and, if confirmed, isolate them from others in coordination with local health departments.

Coronavirus Infections , Health Services Accessibility , Homeless Persons , Mental Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vulnerable Populations , Anxiety Disorders , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Homeless Persons/psychology , Housing , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2