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1.
PLoS ONE ; 16(2), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410723

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on clinical care and lifestyles globally. The State of Michigan reports over 80,000 positive COVID-19 tests between March 1, 2020 and July 29, 2020. We surveyed 8,041 Michigan Medicine biorepository participants in late June 2020. We found that 55% of COVID-19 cases reported no known exposure to family members or to someone outside the house diagnosed with COVID-19. A significantly higher rate of COVID-19 cases were employed as essential workers (45% vs 19%, p = 9x10-12). COVID-19 cases reporting a fever were more likely to require hospitalization (categorized as severe;OR = 4.4 [95% CI: 1.6-12.5, p = 0.005]) whereas respondents reporting rhinorrhea was less likely to require hospitalization (categorized as mild-to-moderate;OR = 0.16 [95% CI: 0.04-0.73, p = 0.018]). African-Americans reported higher rates of being diagnosed with COVID-19 (OR = 4.0 [95% CI: 2.2-7.2, p = 5x10-6]), as well as higher rates of exposure to family or someone outside the household diagnosed with COVID-19, an annual household income < $40,000, living in rental housing, and chronic diseases. During the Executive Order in Michigan, African Americans, women, and the lowest income group reported worsening health behaviors and higher overall concern for the potential detrimental effects of the pandemic. The higher risk of contracting COVID-19 observed among African Americans may be due to the increased rates of working as essential employees, lower socioeconomic status, and exposure to known positive cases. Continued efforts should focus on COVID-19 prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as address the inequality gaps that result in higher risks for both short-term and long-term health outcomes.

2.
Applied Physics Letters ; 119(5), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361677

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are commonly used as the first line of defense in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is rendering many antibiotics less effective. Consequently, effective non-antibiotic antimicrobial strategies are urgently needed to combat AMR. This paper presents a strategy utilizing cold plasma for the "on-demand"activation of acetyl donor molecules. The process generates an aqueous-based antimicrobial formulation comprising a rich mixture of highly oxidizing molecules: peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The synergistic potent oxidative action between these molecules is shown to be highly effective at eradicating common wound pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and at inactivating a virus (SARS-CoV-2). © 2021 Author(s).

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