Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, a number of cases and deaths due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic have been reported worldwide. In spite of clinical manifestations similar to the SARS-CoV epidemic in 2003, affected organs and severity are yet to be defined. Moreover, viral load alterations and viral shielding among different specimens remained scarce. Therefore, clarifying clinical presentations and correlations among viral loads, disease severity, and viral shielding of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial in the disease prevention. METHODS: The clinical courses of SARS-CoV-2 cases were presented through Gantt charts. Laboratory examinations and reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) among different specimens were tested periodically. Cycle thresholds (CT) were recorded and presented as viral loads. RESULTS: From March 2020 to April 2020, four SARS-CoV-2 cases were presented, of which, cases 1 and 2 manifested the symptoms severer than cases 3 and 4, along with higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and graded for lymphocytopenia. Case 4 initially exhibited anosmia, but recovered within a short period. Curves of the CT of all the cases, except case 2, concaved upward after prescribing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin. Except for case 4, the CT in most stool specimens remained undetectable; however, none of the cases presented gastrointestinal symptoms. Surprisingly, the CT values of the saliva specimens were inconsistent with those of the nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 manifests various symptoms. Sudden onset of central nervous system symptoms should be considered. The timing of HCQ and azithromycin administration might be a key factor in the viral load reduction. Positive prediction values of RT-qPCR of different specimens should be tested carefully to prevent false-negative results.

2.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(4): 399-418, 2020 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740298

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles of 30-150 nm diameter secreted by almost all cells. In recent years, with continuous deeper understanding of exosomes physiological functions, different reports have proven that exosomes can facilitate cell-to-cell communication by binding to target cells and transferring their contents, together with RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids between cells and tissues. With advantages that exosomes can be involved in various types of physiological processes, such as blood coagulation, cellular homeostasis, inflammation, immune surveillance, stem cell differentiation, neuroprotection, and tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. Exosomes have been demonstrated that they can be applied in identification and treatment of multiple disorders such as cancers, cerebral ischemia, and respiratory infectious diseases. Importantly, researchers utilize application of exosomes in the treatment of various respiratory infectious diseases that have made some breakthrough progress. However, with the global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), we have focused on applications of exosomes in respiratory infectious diseases and their serious complications, including influenza, TB, ARDS and sepsis. In this review, we explain the use of exosomes in various respiratory infectious diseases and their serious complications, and hope to provide new ideas for the treatment of new coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Exosomes , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Cell Communication , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 157, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689155

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A recently emerging respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread across the world. This disease is initiated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and uncontrolled cytokine storm, but it remains unknown as to whether a robust antibody response is related to clinical deterioration and poor outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by chemiluminescence analysis (CLIA) in COVID-19 patients at a single center in Wuhan. Median IgG and IgM levels in acute and convalescent-phase sera (within 35 days) for all included patients were calculated and compared between severe and non-severe patients. Immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG levels and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was characterized to stratified patients into different disease severities and outcomes. Results: A total of 222 patients were included in this study. IgG was first detected on day 4 of illness, and its peak levels occurred in the fourth week. Severe cases were more frequently found in patients with high IgG levels, compared to those with low IgG levels (51.8 vs. 32.3%; p = 0.008). Severity rates for patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo, NLRloIgGhi, and NLRloIgGlo phenotype were 72.3, 48.5, 33.3, and 15.6%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, severe patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo had higher inflammatory cytokines levels including IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, and decreased CD4+ T cell count compared to those with NLRloIgGlo phenotype (p < 0.05). Recovery rates for severe patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo, NLRloIgGhi, and NLRloIgGlo phenotype were 58.8% (20/34), 68.8% (11/16), 80.0% (4/5), and 100% (12/12), respectively (p = 0.0592). Dead cases only occurred in NLRhiIgGhi and NLRhiIgGlo phenotypes. Conclusions: COVID-19 severity is associated with increased IgG response, and an immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG response and NLR could act as a simple complementary tool to discriminate between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients, and further predict their clinical outcome.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235458, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638588

ABSTRACT

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 bursting in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread across the world. We report the clinical characteristics of 82 cases of death from COVID-19 in a single center. Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital's electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms. All patients were local residents of Wuhan, and a large proportion of them were diagnosed with severe illness when admitted. Due to the overwhelming of our system, a total of 14 patients (17.1%) were treated in the ICU, 83% of deaths never received Critical Care Support, only 40% had mechanical ventilation support despite 100% needing oxygen and the leading cause of death being pulmonary. Most of the patients who died were male (65.9%). More than half of the patients who died were older than 60 years (80.5%), and the median age was 72.5 years. The bulk of the patients who died had comorbidities (76.8%), including hypertension (56.1%), heart disease (20.7%), diabetes (18.3%), cerebrovascular disease (12.2%), and cancer (7.3%). Respiratory failure remained the leading cause of death (69.5%), followed by sepsis/MOF (28.0%), cardiac failure (14.6%), hemorrhage (6.1%), and renal failure (3.7%). Furthermore, respiratory, cardiac, hemorrhagic, hepatic, and renal damage were found in 100%, 89%, 80.5%, 78.0%, and 31.7% of patients, respectively. On admission, lymphopenia (89.2%), neutrophilia (74.3%), and thrombocytopenia (24.3%) were usually observed. Most patients had a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of >5 (94.5%), high systemic immune-inflammation index of >500 (89.2%), and increased C-reactive protein (100%), lactate dehydrogenase (93.2%), and D-dimer (97.1%) levels. A high level of IL-6 (>10 pg/ml) was observed in all detected patients. The median time from initial symptoms to death was 15 days (IQR 11-20), and a significant association between aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.002), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.037) and time from initial symptoms to death was remarkably observed. Older males with comorbidities are more likely to develop severe disease and even die from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory failure is the main cause of COVID-19, but the virus itself and cytokine release syndrome-mediated damage to other organs, including cardiac, renal, hepatic, and hemorrhagic damage, should be taken seriously as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL