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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294592

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a transmembrane protein, is the main entry point for certain coronaviruses including the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to enter cells. Synthesizing the PET imaging probe Al 18 F-DX600-BCH which is high-affinity ACE2 is aim to detect the expression of ACE2 in body and monitor the therapeutic effect. The Al 18 F-DX600-BCH was obtained manually with a 20.4% ± 5.2% radiochemical yield without attenuation correction and an over 99% purified radiochemical purity, being stable in vitro within 4 hours and cleared rapidly in blood (the half-lives of the distribution phase and clearance phase were 2.12 min and 25.31 min, respectively). Results of both biodistribution and PET imaging showed that Al 18 F-DX600-BCH was highly accumulated in the kidney (SUV kidney/normal > 50), and specific uptake in testis (SUV testis/normal > 10) was observed in rat images. The kidney (++), gastrointestinal (++) and bronchial (+++) cells were evidenced of ACE2 positive by IHC staining of rats. A total of 10 volunteers were enrolled and received PET/CT 1 hour and 2 hours after injection or dynamic PET/CT during 0-330 seconds (NCT04542863), from which strong radioactivity accumulation was mostly observed in the genitourinary system (SUV renal cortex = 32.00, SUV testis = 4.56), and moderate accumulation in conjunctiva and nasal mucosa for several cases. This work firstly reported the probe Al 18 F-DX600-BCH targeting ACE2, conducting preliminary preclinical experiments and a total of 10 clinical transformations, which demonstrated the potential and possibility of non-invasive mapping of ACE2. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04542863. Registered 9 September 2020.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293272

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a transmembrane protein, is the main entry point for certain coronaviruses including the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to enter cells. Synthesizing the PET imaging probe Al 18 F-DX600-BCH which is high-affinity ACE2 is aim to detect the expression of ACE2 in body and monitor the therapeutic effect. The Al 18 F-DX600-BCH was obtained manually with a 20.4% ± 5.2% radiochemical yield without attenuation correction and an over 99% purified radiochemical purity, being stable in vitro within 4 hours and cleared rapidly in blood (the half-lives of the distribution phase and clearance phase were 2.12 min and 25.31 min, respectively). Results of both biodistribution and PET imaging showed that Al 18 F-DX600-BCH was highly accumulated in the kidney (SUV kidney/normal > 50), and specific uptake in testis (SUV testis/normal > 10) was observed in rat images. The kidney (++), gastrointestinal (++) and bronchial (+++) cells were evidenced of ACE2 positive by IHC staining of rats. A total of 10 volunteers were enrolled and received PET/CT 1 hour and 2 hours after injection or dynamic PET/CT during 0-330 seconds (NCT04542863), from which strong radioactivity accumulation was mostly observed in the genitourinary system (SUV renal cortex = 32.00, SUV testis = 4.56), and moderate accumulation in conjunctiva and nasal mucosa for several cases. This work firstly reported the probe Al 18 F-DX600-BCH targeting ACE2, conducting preliminary preclinical experiments and a total of 10 clinical transformations, which demonstrated the potential and possibility of non-invasive mapping of ACE2. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04542863. Registered 9 September 2020.

3.
Agronomy ; 11(11):2346, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1542394

ABSTRACT

The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of crop canopy is highly related to yield formation, but how it relates to yield and yield distribution is not well understood. The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between light competition under different densities and yield distributions of cotton. The experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at the Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Anyang city, Henan Province, China. A randomized block design was employed, with a total of three repeats. Each repeat had six density treatments: D1: 15,000;D2: 33,000;D3: 51,000;D4: 69,000;D5: 87,000;and D6: 105,000 plants·ha−1. As predicted, the results showed that the canopy light interception, leaf area index, plant height, and biomass of high-density cotton were higher than those of low-density cotton. The aboveground biomass produced by D6 was the highest, and was 12.9, 19.5, 25.4, 46.3, and 69.2% higher in 2019 and 14.3, 19.9, 32.5, 53.7, and 109.9% higher in 2020 than D5, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. Leaf area, plant height, biomass, boll number, and boll weight were significantly correlated with the light interception rate. D5 (87,000 plants·ha−1) had a higher light interception rate and the highest yield. The highest lint yields produced by D5 were 1673.5 and 1375.4 kg·ha−1 in two years, and was 3.2, 4.3, 5.6, 9.7, and 24.7% higher in 2019, and 6.8, 10.6, 13.5, 21.5, and 34.4% higher in 2020 than D6, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. The boll retention of the lower fruit branch under D5 reached 0.51 and 0.57 in two years, respectively. The shedding rate of the upper fruit branch decreased with the increase in cotton density in two years. The boll retention rate and shedding rate in the lower part of cotton plants were most closely related to light interception, with R2 values of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. Our study shows cotton yield could be improved through higher light interception by optimizing planting density and canopy structure. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Agronomy is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
9.
Land ; 10(9):909, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1374446

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to global concerns about the delicate relationship between humans and wildlife. However, quantitative research on the elements of a wildlife management policy framework in a certain country is lacking. In this study, we try to close this research gap by analyzing the formulation preferences of key elements in the wildlife management policy framework, as well as the coordination between them, in China, which is generally regarded as a main wildlife consumption country. Based on the content analysis of China’s wildlife management policy documents, with a three-dimensional analytical framework, we find that: China’s wildlife management policy framework prefers the use of compulsory tools, while voluntary and mixed tools are not fully used;adequate attention is paid to the biodiversity conservation objectives and attention is paid to the objectives of public health protection and wildlife welfare, while the utilization objective is restricted to some extent;government sectors, industry, citizens, and non-governmental organizations are involved in wildlife management policies and the degrees of participation of citizens and non-governmental organizations are relatively low. In conclusion, we draw wider implications for China’s wildlife management policy formulation, arguing for a more coordinated and participatory policy framework.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4144, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298839

ABSTRACT

To investigate the duration of humoral immune response in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we conduct a 12-month longitudinal study through collecting a total of 1,782 plasma samples from 869 convalescent plasma donors in Wuhan, China and test specific antibody responses. The results show that positive rate of IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (RBD-IgG) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors exceeded 70% for 12 months post diagnosis. The level of RBD-IgG decreases with time, with the titer stabilizing at 64.3% of the initial level by the 9th month. Moreover, male plasma donors produce more RBD-IgG than female, and age of the patients positively correlates with the RBD-IgG titer. A strong positive correlation between RBD-IgG and neutralizing antibody titers is also identified. These results facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune memory to promote vaccine and therapy development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3623, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270656

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) urgently needs an effective cure. 3CL protease (3CLpro) is a highly conserved cysteine proteinase that is indispensable for coronavirus replication, providing an attractive target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. Here we describe the discovery of myricetin, a flavonoid found in many food sources, as a non-peptidomimetic and covalent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Crystal structures of the protease bound with myricetin and its derivatives unexpectedly revealed that the pyrogallol group worked as an electrophile to covalently modify the catalytic cysteine. Kinetic and selectivity characterization together with theoretical calculations comprehensively illustrated the covalent binding mechanism of myricetin with the protease and demonstrated that the pyrogallol can serve as an electrophile warhead. Structure-based optimization of myricetin led to the discovery of derivatives with good antiviral activity and the potential of oral administration. These results provide detailed mechanistic insights into the covalent mode of action by pyrogallol-containing natural products and a template for design of non-peptidomimetic covalent inhibitors against 3CLpros, highlighting the potential of pyrogallol as an alternative warhead in design of targeted covalent ligands.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Pyrogallol/chemistry , Pyrogallol/isolation & purification , Pyrogallol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Drug Design , Flavonoids , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Ligands , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 69, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can lead to increased psychological symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety among patients with COVID-19. Based on the previous mindfulness-based interventions proved to be effective, this protocol reports a design of a randomized controlled trial aiming to explore the efficacy and possible mechanism of a mindful living with challenge (MLWC) intervention developed for COVID-19 survivors in alleviating their psychological problems caused by both the disease and the pandemic. METHODS: In April 2021, more than 1600 eligible participants from Hubei Province of China will be assigned 1:1 to an online MLWC intervention group or a waitlist control group. All participants will be asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up. The differences of mental health status (e.g. PTSD) and physical symptoms including fatigue and sleeplessness between the COVID-19 survivors who receiving the online MLWC intervention and the control group will be assessed. In addition, the possible mediators and moderators of the link between the MLWC intervention and target outcomes will be evaluated by related verified scales, such as the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire. Data will be analyzed based on an intention-to-treat approach, and SPSS software will be used to perform statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: The efficacy and potential mechanism of MLWC intervention in improving the quality of life and psychological status of COVID-19 survivors in China are expected to be reported. Findings from this study will shed light on a novel and feasible model in improving the psychological well-being of people during such public health emergencies. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), ChiCTR2000037524; Registered on August 29, 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=60034 .


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , China/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(1):73-77, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1175786

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a SARS-CoV-2 antibody sample panel and apply to the quality evaluation of test cassettes for colloidal gold lateral flow assay.

16.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4745

ABSTRACT

A review on experience and recommendations on clin. treatment and transport of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe new-type coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 in Guangxi.

18.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 639-645, 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771379

ABSTRACT

An online survey conducted March 18-19, 2020 on the official China CDC WeChat account platform was used to evaluate the effect of public education about masks usage during the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Chinese nationals older than 18 were eligible for the survey. The survey collected 5,761 questionnaires from the 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions of mainland China. 99.7% and 97.2% of the respondents answered correctly that respiratory droplets and direct contact were the main transmission routes. 73.3% of the respondents considered COVID-19 to be 'serious' or 'very serious'. When going to the hospital, 96.9% (2,885/2,976 had gone to a hospital) used a mask during the COVID-19 epidemic, while 41.1% (2,367/5,761) did not use a mask before the epidemic. Among the respondents that used public transportation and went shopping, 99.6% and 99.4%, respectively, wore masks. Among respondents who returned to work, 75.5% wore a mask at the workplace, while 86.3% of those who have not returned to work will choose to use masks when they return to the workplace. The Chinese public is highly likely to use a mask during COVID-19 epidemic, and the mask usage changed greatly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, public education has played an important role during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(7): 1668-1674, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133495

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate influenza-associated excess mortality rates (EMRs) in Chongqing from 2012 to 2018. METHODS: We obtained weekly mortality data for all-cause and four underlying causes of death (circulatory and respiratory disease (CRD), pneumonia and influenza (P&I), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IDH)), and influenza surveillance data, from 2012 to 2018. A negative-binomial regression model was used to estimate influenza-associated EMRs in two age groups (<65 years and ≥65 years). RESULTS: It was estimated that an annual average of 10025 influenza-associated deaths occurred in Chongqing, corresponding to 5.2% of all deaths. The average EMR for all-cause death associated with influenza was 33.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 31.5-35.6) per 100 000 persons, and in separate cause-specific models we attributed 24.7 (95% CI: 23.3-26.0), 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7-0.8), 8.5 (95% CI: 8.1-9.0) and 5.0 (95% CI: 4.7-5.3) per 100 000 persons EMRs to CRD, P&I, COPD and IDH, respectively. The estimated EMR for influenza B virus was 20.6 (95% CI: 20.3-21.0), which was significantly higher than the rates of 5.3 (95% CI: 4.5-6.1) and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.7-8.3) for A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) pdm09 virus, respectively. The estimated EMR was 152.3 (95% CI: 136.1-168.4) for people aged ≥65 years, which was significantly higher than the rate for those aged <65 years (6.8, 95% CI: 6.3-7.2). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza was associated with substantial EMRs in Chongqing, especially among elderly people. Influenza B virus caused a relatively higher excess mortality impact compared with A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2). It is advisable to optimize future seasonal influenza vaccine reimbursement policy in Chongqing to curb disease burden.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Seasons
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