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1.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 969-970, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2011590

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid amplification detection is one of the most widely used molecular diagnostic techniques in recent years, which can rapidly and efficiently amplify the characteristic nucleotide sequences of pathogenic bacteria in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, it has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease screening and other fields. In this work, we report a micro-cavity digital PCR for rapid detection of pathogens on a silicon-based microfluidic chip. The device has the advantages of high flux, no pumping, rapid reaction, quantification and high sensitivity. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

2.
LANCET ; 399(10342):2212-2225, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935221

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. Methods COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 x 10(1)degrees viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). Findings Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years;due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40.2 degrees C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC 50;95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC 50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1.48 [95% CI 1.07-2.07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2.96 [1.89-4.62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

3.
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) ; : 8600-8606, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799303

ABSTRACT

We carry out a structural and algorithmic study of a mobile sensor coverage optimization problem targeting 2D surfaces embedded in a 3D workspace. The investigated settings model multiple important applications including camera network deployment for surveillance, geological monitoring/survey of 3D terrains, and UVC-based surface disinfection for the prevention of the spread of disease agents (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Under a unified general "sensor coverage" problem, three concrete formulations are examined, focusing on optimizing visibility, single-best coverage quality, and cumulative quality, respectively. After demonstrating the computational intractability of all these formulations, we describe approximation schemes and mathematical programming models for near-optimally solving them. The effectiveness of our methods is thoroughly evaluated under realistic and practical scenarios.

4.
5th IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things, SmartIoT 2021 ; : 82-88, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741251

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of the COVID-19, people can effectively prevent New Coronavirus infection by wearing masks in public places. However, the mask obscuration causes some face recognition systems to fail to recognize properly. Therefore, in this paper, we propose Multi-Residual Attention Network(MRANet) based on deep convolutional neural network for recognizing faces obscured by masks and improve a loss function. In our model, an attention mechanism and multiple residual layers skip connections are introduced, which allow the model to focus more on the unobscured facial information and contribute to increase the efficiency of information flow and gradient flow between each network layers. A dynamic addictive angular margin loss function, a more reasonable decision boundary function, is also proposed to improve the model’s discriminative power and convergence speed. Our algorithm can effectively identify and verify not only normal unobstructed faces, but also faces obscured by masks. We achieved a accuracy rate of 96.7% on the widely used Labeled Faces in the Wild dataset (LFW), a accuracy rate of 84.837% on the Real-world Masked Face Recognition Dataset (RMFRD), and the false accepted rate in the simulated face recognition system is as low as 0.944%. © 2021 IEEE.

5.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2021 ; 2021-May:8600-8606, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1730972

ABSTRACT

We carry out a structural and algorithmic study of a mobile sensor coverage optimization problem targeting 2D surfaces embedded in a 3D workspace. The investigated settings model multiple important applications including camera network deployment for surveillance, geological monitoring/survey of 3D terrains, and UVC-based surface disinfection for the prevention of the spread of disease agents (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Under a unified general “sensor coverage” problem, three concrete formulations are examined, focusing on optimizing visibility, single-best coverage quality, and cumulative quality, respectively. After demonstrating the computational intractability of all these formulations, we describe approximation schemes and mathematical programming models for near-optimally solving them. The effectiveness of our methods is thoroughly evaluated under realistic and practical scenarios. © 2021 IEEE

6.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326892

ABSTRACT

Although pivotal trials with varying populations and study methods suggest higher efficacy for mRNA than adenoviral Covid-19 vaccines, no direct evidence is available. Here, we conducted a head-to-head comparison of BNT162b2 versus ChAdOx1 against Covid-19. We analysed 235,181 UK Biobank participants aged 50 years or older and vaccinated with one or two doses of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. People were followed from the vaccination date until 18/10/2021. Inverse probability weighting was used to minimise confounding and the Cox models to derive hazard ratio. We found that, compared with two doses of ChAdOx1, vaccination with BNT162b2 was associated with 30% lower risks of both SARS-CoV-2 infection and related hospitalisation during the period dominated by the delta variant. Also, this comparative effectiveness was consistent across several subgroups and persisted for at least six months, suggesting no differential waning between the two vaccines. Our findings can inform evidence-based Covid-19 vaccination campaigns and booster strategies.

7.
Journal of Geo-Information Science ; 23(11):1936-1945, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1643909

ABSTRACT

Many cities in China have adopted a series of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) and rapidly suppressed the 1 st wave of COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. It is critical to evaluate the effectiveness of these NPIs for future epidemic control. However, as a variety of NPIs were applied together in practice, it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of a single type of intervention by epidemiological observation. Taking Shenzhen city as an example, this study used a spatially explicit agent-based model by integrating mobile phone location data, travel survey data, building survey data and other multi-source spatiotemporal big data to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of NPIs in the suppression of the 1 st wave of COVID-19 epidemic in Shenzhen. The simulation results show that the peak of the epidemic would have appeared on the 127 th day since Jan 1st of 2020, resulting in an average of 72.26% of the population to be infected without any interventions. In the 1 st wave of Shenzhen epidemic, except for the hospitalization of confirmed cases and intercity traffic restrictions, the stay-at-home order was the most effective one, followed by comprehensive isolation and quarantine measures (for close contacts, imported population and suspected cases), mask wearing, and orderly resumption of work. The stay-at-home order and comprehensive isolation and quarantine measures can effectively control the large-scale outbreak of the COVID-19, which are identified as the core measures;Mask wearing and orderly resumption of work can only reduce the overall infection size and delay the epidemic peak, which are identified as secondary measures. Considering the socioeconomic costs and the receding compliance to interventions in the post-epidemic period, this study suggests that the core measures and secondary measures should be combined to control the sporadic cases. Specifically, the local government can give the highest priority to isolation and quarantine measures for confirmed cases and high-risk individuals, complemented by mask wearing. In addition, our model can reveal the high-risk infection areas at a community level, which can help deploy control measures within an urban environment. In summary, this study demonstrated the advantages of integrating spatiotemporal big data and agent-based models to simulate the spread processes of infectious diseases in an urban environment: it can not only simulate the evolving processes of an epidemic at a fine-grained scale, but also evaluate the effectiveness of the NPIs at an individual level and for activity-travel behaviors, which can be useful for precise intervention. 2021, Science Press. All right reserved.

8.
South Dakota Medicine: The Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association ; 74(11):500-501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615133
9.
Clinical Toxicology ; 59(11):1165-1165, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1489995
10.
18th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Applications, WISA 2021 ; 12999 LNCS:519-530, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1446094

ABSTRACT

Emotion Cause Extraction (ECE) is an emerging hot topic in the field of sentiment analysis. The purpose of the ECE task is to extract the causes of emotions in the text according to the text and given emotions. Emotional Cause Pair Extraction (ECPE) is a brand-new research problem on ECE, whose main purpose is to extract the emotion clauses and emotion cause clauses in texts at the same time. At present, the ECPE task has received extensive attentions from both academia and industry communities. The existing ECPE researches are mainly carried out on online news report corpus. However, this kind of corpus has several limitations, such as the small scale and rough tagging granularity. In this paper, we construct an emotion cause extraction dataset containing 5,195 COVID-19 pandemic-related discussion posts collected from Sina Weibo, and leverage 10 state-of-the-art models to perform ECE and ECPE tasks on this new dataset. We find that the performances of most existing models on our newly constructed dataset decrease dramatically compared with the reported results in the online news dataset. We further analyze the causes of this phenomenon. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies ; 6(3):355-370, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1416723

ABSTRACT

As the backdrop for contemporary international relations, globalization reflects the way economic and political power are distributed, and provides the grand context for China's strategic planning. The history and logic of globalization have shown that underpinned by a system of nation-states, globalization proceeds according to an inescapable cyclical pattern. Globalization suffered major setbacks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and is likely to further lose steam amid an evolving Covid-19 pandemic. A low-ebb phase of globalization will present an increasingly complicated strategic environment featuring intensifying great power rivalry, regionalized supply chains, and growing technology competition. Beijing remains determined to integrate further into the world, but to adapt to a new strategic environment, will vigorously implement the newly unveiled dual circulation strategy. As China sees it, despite all the major setbacks, globalization is an irreversible mega-trend but it will be driven by a new underlying logic. © 2020 World Century Publishing Corporation.

12.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 62(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1378858

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted surgical resident education. We sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on ophthalmology resident training and wellness at the University of Washington through observing changes in volume of overnight on-call consults, resident clinics, and resident surgical cases, in addition to studying changes in sleep, activity, and resident wellness survey results. Methods : A retrospective cohort study of ophthalmology residents at the University of Washington comparing clinical volumes, sleep and activity data recorded by a wrist actigrapher, and wellness surveys during a pre-COVID period from February 1 , 2020 to March 15 to the period of initial COVID response (COVID period) from March 16 to May 1 , 2020. Results : The initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a 64% decrease in resident clinic volume, 64% decrease in resident-surgical cases, and 50% decrease in oncall consult volume, see figure 1. The fraction of consults involving an open globe injury increased more than four-fold. Resident depersonalization as measured by Maslach Burnout Inventory decreased during the pandemic (p=0.038), see figure 2. Most residents experienced decrease emotional exhaustion and increased anxiety during the pandemic. There was no statistically significant change in recorded sleep or activity among residents before and during the pandemic. Conclusions : The initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of Washington resulted in a large decrease in clinical, surgical, and on call volumes with mixed effect on ophthalmology resident well-being.

13.
Acs Es&T Water ; 1(8):1955-1965, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1373349

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 provides an approach for assessing the infection burden across a sewer service area. For these data to be useful for public health, measurement variability and the relationship to case data need to be established. We determined SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in the influent of 12 wastewater treatment plants from August 2020 to January 2021. Technical replicates for N1 gene concentrations showed a relative standard deviation of 24%, suggesting it is possible to track relatively small (similar to 30%) changes in SARS-CoV-2 concentrations over time. COVID-19 cases were correlated significantly (rho >= 0.70) to wastewater SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations across large and small service areas, with weaker relationships (rho >= 0.59) in two communities. SARS-CoV-2 concentrations normalized to per capita slightly improved correlations to COVID-19 incidence, but normalizing to a spiked recovery control (BCoV) or a fecal marker (PMMoV or HF183) reduced correlations for a number of plants. Daily sampling demonstrated that a minimum of two samples collected per week were needed to maintain accuracy in trend analysis. The differences in the strength of SARS-CoV-2 relationships to COVID-19 incidence and the effect of normalization on these data among communities demonstrate that rigorous validation should be performed at individual sites where wastewater surveillance programs are implemented.

14.
2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Image Processing, Electronics and Computers, IPEC 2021 ; : 572-575, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1369424

ABSTRACT

How to adopt channel strategy is one of the important issues in fresh supply chain management. Aiming at the main ways for consumers to purchase fresh products, this paper uses supply chain management theory to study the channel strategies of retailers under COVID-19 and its impact on fresh supply chain. Firstly, three channels for consumers to purchase fresh products under COVID-19 and their characteristics are analyzed. Secondly, the main problems existing in each channel under COVID-19 are studied. Finally, some countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to solve the main problems of fresh supply chain. © 2021 ACM.

15.
10th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, DUXU 2021, held as part of the 23rd International Conference, HCI International 2021 ; 12779 LNCS:156-170, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1359860

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease - 19), most schools have adopted remote or mixed methods to teach;therefore, students need new types of educational products to achieve a high-quality learning experience. There are many difficulties and obstacles to taking classes online. More interactions and formats need to be explored for students to absorb as much classroom knowledge as possible. The research team conducted a design workshop. Thirty-eight psychology and applied psychology students participated in this workshop using different user research methods, such as user journey maps and how-to methods. They explored educational products in five scenarios: taking physical education classes, giving online learning feedback, conducting teamwork, taking an online examination, and studying in the dormitory. Each group proposed design solutions to solve design problems in a particular context. For the 56 design problems, the participants identified 548 design solutions. The facilitator helped the group select six or seven design challenges with higher priorities. All the research data were collected, and the jobs-to-be-done (JTBD) theory was used to analyze users’ needs for future educational products. The users’ needs were summarized into user need clusters. This study has identified seven primary user needs and 20 sub-needs in five scenarios. The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to UX designers and UX researchers to obtain a new perspective on scenarios. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

16.
2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Making Waves, Combining Strengths, CHI EA 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1238602

ABSTRACT

During the rapid and forced move to online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic, university courses that never would have been considered suitable for online teaching under normal circumstances, were moved online. While challenging, this also opened opportunities for developing innovative strategies for teaching and learning. We report on the experiences of moving online a course in embodied interaction, which due to its focus on situated and embodied design faced extensive challenges in moving online. We highlight in particular the way in which the course brought forward innovative methods for bodystorming and user-assisted trialling. This paper has been written jointly by students and teachers from the course. © 2021 ACM.

17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(8): 573-578, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119574

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the difference in the expression profile of circular RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells between patients with mild and severe influenza pneumonia. Methods: From December 2018 to March 2019, 10 inpatients with mild and 10 inpatients with severe influenza pneumonia admitted to the Department of Infection and Clinical Microbiology of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were included. Clariom™ D gene chip was used to explore the circRNA expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the patients. The absolute value of the fold change (FC value)>2 and P<0.05 were used as the criteria to screen the differentially expressed circRNA, and the gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome database (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, KEGG) signal pathway enrichment analysis were also performed. Results: The age of mild patients [M (P25, P75)] was 62.0 (34.5, 69.8) years old, including 4 males; the age of severe patients [M (P25, P75)] was 50.0 (37.0, 60.0) years old, all were males. A total of 137 differentially expressed circRNAs in PBMCs of mild and severe patients were screened. The numbers of up-regulated and down-regulated circRNAs in mild patients were 101 and 36, respectively. Among them, hsa_circ_0091073 (FC value=160.898, P<0.05) was the most significantly up-regulated circRNA and hsa_circ_0092219 (FC value =-17.630, P<0.05) was the most significantly down-regulated circRNA. GO enrichment analysis showed that a total of 111 secondary GO items were significantly associated with related differential expression of circRNA (P<0.05). The GO terms associated with upregulated circRNAs included DNA-templated transcription, regulation of DNA-templated transcription, regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter, etc.; The GO terms associated with downregulated circRNAs included neutrophil degranulation, killing of cells of other organism, defense response to fungus, etc. KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that there were 37 metabolic pathways related to differentially expressed circRNAs (P<0.05). Signaling pathways related to up-regulated circRNAs included nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, etc. Signaling pathways related to down-regulation of circRNAs included cancer transcription disorders, folate carbon pool, and other types of O-glycan biosynthesis. Conclusion: The expression of circRNA in PBMC of mild and severe influenza pneumonia patients is significantly different, and it may play a role in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza pneumonia through multiple signal pathways.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , Middle Aged , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , RNA, Circular
18.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 69(1):233-234, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1079114
19.
Indian Journal of Pediatrics ; 87(11):968-969, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1070187
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