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1.
ACS measurement science Au ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1688311

ABSTRACT

Samples of nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) are commonly used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and diagnosis of COVID-19. As an alternative, self-collection of saliva and gargle samples minimizes transmission to healthcare workers and relieves the pressure of resources and healthcare personnel during the pandemic. This study aimed to develop an enhanced method enabling simultaneous viral inactivation and RNA preservation during on-site self-collection of saliva and gargle samples. Our method involves the addition of saliva or gargle samples to a newly formulated viral inactivation and RNA preservation (VIP) buffer, concentration of the viral RNA on magnetic beads, and detection of SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction directly from the magnetic beads. This method has a limit of detection of 25 RNA copies per 200 μL of gargle or saliva sample and 9–111 times higher sensitivity than the viral RNA preparation kit recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The integrated method was successfully used to analyze more than 200 gargle and saliva samples, including the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 123 gargle and saliva samples collected daily from two NPS-confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 patients throughout the course of their infection and recovery. The VIP buffer is stable at room temperature for at least 6 months. SARS-CoV-2 RNA (65 copies/200 μL sample) is stable in the VIP buffer at room temperature for at least 3 weeks. The on-site inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and preservation of the viral RNA enables self-collection of samples, reduces risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and maintains the stability of the target analyte.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324525

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. Our study aimed to identify factors in predicting prolonged negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. Methods: : The clinical features and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed from 32 hospitalized mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. Then univariate and multivariate analysis were used to predict in the factors of prolonged NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results: : The general clinical symptoms were cough (78.1%), fever (75%), diarrhea (68.8%), expectoration (56.3%), and nausea (37.5%). More than 40% of the patients had decreased erythrocyte, hemoglobin and leucocyte and 93.8% patients were detected in abnormalities of chest CT. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 19.5 days (IQR: 14.25–25). Univariate analysis found fever, nausea, diarrhea and abnormalities in chest CTs were positively associated with prolonged NCT of viral RNA (P<0.05). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that fever [Exp (B), 0.284;95% CI, 0.114‑0.707;P<0.05] and nausea [Exp (B), 0.257;95%CI, 0.096‑0.689;P<0.05] were two significant independent factors. Conclusions: : Fever, nausea, diarrhea and abnormalities in chest CT are potential factors for predicting prolonged NCT of viral RNA. Moreover, Fever and nausea were two significant independent factors in prolonged NCT of viral RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323518

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces new-onset diabetes and severe metabolic complications of pre-existing diabetes. The pathogenic mechanism underlying this is incompletely understood. Here, we provided evidence linking circulating GP73 with the exaggerated gluconeogenesis triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection or glucotoxic conditions increased GP73 production and secretion. Secreted GP73 then trafficked to the liver and kidney to stimulate gluconeogenesis through the cAMP/PKA pathway. By using global phosphoproteomics, we found a drastic remodeling of the PKA kinase hub exerted by GP73. Notably, plasma GP73 levels were elevated and positively correlated with blood glucose in patients with COVID19 and diabetes. Neutralization of circulating GP73 in serum of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 or with diabetes reduced excessive gluconeogenesis in cultured hepatocytes, and lowered blood glucose levels in animal models of diabetes. Ablation of GP73 from whole animals has a profound glucose-lowering effect secondary to reduced gluconeogenesis. Thus, GP73 is a key glucogenic hormone contributing to SARS-CoV-2-induced glucose abnormality.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315276

ABSTRACT

By using the public data from Jan. 20 to Feb. 11, 2020, we perform data-driven analysis and forecasting on the COVID-19 epidemic in mainland China, especially Hubei province. Our results show that the turning points of the daily infections are predicted to be Feb. 6 and Feb. 1, 2020, for Hubei and China other than Hubei, respectively. The epidemic in China is predicted to end up after Mar. 10, 2020, and the number of the total infections are predicted to be 51600. The data trends reveal that quick and active strategies taken by China to reduce human exposure have already had a good impact on the control of the epidemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310220

ABSTRACT

Background: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to threaten all human health worldwide. Although the symptoms, signs, responses, and outcomes associated with the disease varies for individuals, few studies have reported on pediatric patients with COVID-19. Methods: : This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records from three tertiary hospitals in Anhui province, China, of 23 children with COVID-19. Here, epidemiologic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory test results, and treatment strategies for these pediatric patients are reported and analyzed. Results: : In total, 23 children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were analyzed. All patients were given a nucleic acid detection test for SARS-CoV-2, and positive results confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. Ten patients (43.5%) were female, and 19 patients (82.6%) had defined exposure history and familial clustering. The youngest patient was 16 months of age, the oldest, 17 years. The clinical symptoms of all included pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were mild, with cough (12, 52.2%) and fever (10, 43.5%) being the most frequent, making their symptoms indistinguishable from common respiratory infections. There was no difference in clinical manifestation between males and females ( P > 0.05). Eight patients (34.8%) showed changes on chest computed tomography imaging. The median level of each laboratory test parameter was within the normal reference range. Treatments primarily included antiviral therapies, traditional Chinese medicine therapies, and symptomatic supportive treatment. Conclusions: : The symptoms of all 23 pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection included in this study were mild. Because the primary presenting symptoms were indistinguishable from common respiratory infections and because most patients had an exposure history and familial clustering, we recommend supporting the diagnosis of mild or atypical COVID-19 in children with detailed epidemiologic information and chest computed tomography imaging as well as with nucleic acid detection tests. Obtaining a correct diagnosis in the early stage of the disease will contribute to controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to providing more immediate relevant treatment for infected children.

6.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(Suppl 1): 127-129, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502952
7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(21): 11844-11869, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454829

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have revolutionized biological and biomedical sciences in many ways. The last few years have also seen tremendous interest in deploying the CRISPR-Cas toolbox for analytical and diagnostic assay development because CRISPR-Cas is one of the most powerful classes of molecular machineries for the recognition and manipulation of nucleic acids. In the short period of development, many CRISPR-enabled assays have already established critical roles in clinical diagnostics, biosensing, and bioimaging. We describe in this review the recent advances and design principles of CRISPR mediated analytical tools with an emphasis on the functional roles of CRISPR-Cas machineries as highly efficient binders and molecular scissors. We highlight the diverse engineering approaches for molecularly modifying CRISPR-Cas machineries and for devising better readout platforms. We discuss the potential roles of these new approaches and platforms in enhancing assay sensitivity, specificity, multiplexity, and clinical outcomes. By illustrating the biochemical and analytical processes, we hope this review will help guide the best use of the CRISPR-Cas toolbox in detecting, quantifying and imaging biologically and clinically important molecules and inspire new ideas, technological advances and engineering strategies for addressing real-world challenges such as the on-going COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Anal Chem ; 93(37): 12808-12816, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402013

ABSTRACT

CRISPR-Cas systems integrated with nucleic acid amplification techniques improve both analytical specificity and sensitivity. We describe here issues and solutions for the successful integration of reverse transcription (RT), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), and CRISPR-Cas12a nuclease reactions into a single tube under an isothermal condition (40 °C). Specific detection of a few copies of a viral DNA sequence was achieved in less than 20 min. However, the sensitivity was orders of magnitude lower for the detection of viral RNA due to the slow initiation of RPA when the complementary DNA (cDNA) template remained hybridized to RNA. During the delay of RPA, the crRNA-Cas12a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) gradually lost its activity in the RPA solution, and nonspecific amplification reactions consumed the RPA reagents. We overcame these problems by taking advantage of the endoribonuclease function of RNase H to remove RNA from the RNA-cDNA hybrids and free the cDNA as template for the RPA reaction. As a consequence, we significantly enhanced the overall reaction rate of an integrated assay using RT-RPA and CRISPR-Cas12a for the detection of RNA. We showed successful detection of 200 or more copies of the S gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA within 5-30 min. We applied our one-tube assay to 46 upper respiratory swab samples for COVID-19 diagnosis, and the results from both fluorescence intensity measurements and end-point visualization were consistent with those of RT-qPCR analysis. The strategy and technique improve the sensitivity and speed of RT-RPA and CRISPR-Cas12a assays, potentially useful for both semi-quantitative and point-of-care analyses of RNA molecules.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombinases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Technology
9.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105309, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372894

ABSTRACT

Six new polyketone metabolites, compounds (1-6) and seven known polyketone compounds (7-13) were isolated from Rhodiola tibetica endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. The structural elucidation of five new polyketone metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic including 2D NMR and HRMS and spectrometric analysis. Inhibition rate evaluation revealed that compounds 1(EC50 = 0.02 mM), 3(EC50 = 0.3 mM), 6(EC50 = 0.07 mM), 8(EC50 = 0.1 mM) and 9(EC50 = 0.04 mM) had inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Alternaria/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ketones/isolation & purification , Ketones/pharmacology , Polymers/isolation & purification , Polymers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Polymers/chemistry
10.
Chem Sci ; 12(13): 4683-4698, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189294

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein systems have transformed the field of genome editing and transcriptional modulation. Progress in CRISPR-Cas technology has also advanced molecular detection of diverse targets, ranging from nucleic acids to proteins. Incorporating CRISPR-Cas systems with various nucleic acid amplification strategies enables the generation of amplified detection signals, enrichment of low-abundance molecular targets, improvements in analytical specificity and sensitivity, and development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic techniques. These systems take advantage of various Cas proteins for their particular features, including RNA-guided endonuclease activity, sequence-specific recognition, multiple turnover trans-cleavage activity of Cas12 and Cas13, and unwinding and nicking ability of Cas9. Integrating a CRISPR-Cas system after nucleic acid amplification improves detection specificity due to RNA-guided recognition of specific sequences of amplicons. Incorporating CRISPR-Cas before nucleic acid amplification enables enrichment of rare and low-abundance nucleic acid targets and depletion of unwanted abundant nucleic acids. Unwinding of dsDNA to ssDNA using CRISPR-Cas9 at a moderate temperature facilitates techniques for achieving isothermal exponential amplification of nucleic acids. A combination of CRISPR-Cas systems with functional nucleic acids (FNAs) and molecular translators enables the detection of non-nucleic acid targets, such as proteins, metal ions, and small molecules. Successful integrations of CRISPR technology with nucleic acid amplification techniques result in highly sensitive and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Eur J Radiol ; 137: 109602, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Differentiating COVID-19 from other acute infectious pneumonias rapidly is challenging at present. This study aims to improve the diagnosis of COVID-19 using computed tomography (CT). METHOD: COVID-19 was confirmed mainly by virus nucleic acid testing and epidemiological history according to WHO interim guidance, while other infectious pneumonias were diagnosed by antigen testing. The texture features were extracted from CT images by two radiologists with 5 years of work experience using modified wavelet transform and matrix computation analyses. The random forest (RF) classifier was applied to identify COVID-19 patients and images. RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 95 individuals (291 images) with COVID-19 and 96 individuals (279 images) with other acute infectious pneumonias, including 50 individuals (160 images) with influenza A/B. In total, 6 texture features showed a positive association with COVID-19, while 4 features were negatively associated. The mean AUROC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of the 5-fold test sets were 0.800, 0.722, 0.770, and 0.680 for image classification and 0.858, 0.826, 0.809, and 0.842 for individual classification, respectively. The feature 'Correlation' contributed most both at the image level and individual level, even compared with the clinical factors. In addition, the texture features could discriminate COVID-19 from influenza A/B, with an AUROC of 0.883 for images and 0.957 for individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The developed texture feature-based RF classifier could assist in the diagnosis of COVID-19, which could be a rapid screening tool in the era of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Machine Learning , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology ; 31(1):47-58, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1064367

ABSTRACT

To develop and validate an effective model for distinguishing COVID‐19 from bacterial pneumonia. In the training group and internal validation group, all patients were randomly divided into a training group (n = 245) and a validation group (n = 105). The whole lung lesion on chest computed tomography (CT) was drawn as the region of interest (ROI) for each patient. Both feature selection and model construction were first performed in the training set and then further tested in the validation set with the same thresholds. Additional tests were conducted on an external multicentre cohort with 105 subjects. The diagnostic model of LightGBM showed the best performance, achieving a sensitivity of 0.941, specificity of 0.981, accuracy of 0.962 on the validation dataset. In this study, we established a differential model to distinguish between COVID‐19 and bacterial pneumonia based on chest CT radiomics and clinical indexes.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 141, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. The negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is closely related to clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 patients. Our study aimed to predict factors associated with prolonged NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The clinical features, laboratory data and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Then univariate and multivariate analysis were used to screen out risk factors of influencing prolonged NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RESULTS: Thirty-two hospitalized mild/moderate COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The general clinical symptoms were cough (78.1%), fever (75%), diarrhea (68.8%), expectoration (56.3%), and nausea (37.5%). More than 40% of the patients had decreased erythrocyte, hemoglobin and leucocyte and 93.8% patients were detected in abnormalities of chest CT. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 19.5 days (IQR: 14.25-25). Univariate analysis found fever, nausea, diarrhea and abnormalities in chest CTs were positively associated with prolonged NCT of viral RNA (P< 0.05). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that fever [Exp (B), 0.284; 95% CI, 0.114-0.707; P<0.05] and nausea [Exp (B), 0.257; 95%CI, 0.096-0.689; P<0.05] were two significant independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: Fever and nausea were two significant independent factors in prolonged NCT of viral RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients, which provided a useful references for disease progression and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors
14.
Anal Chem ; 92(24): 16204-16212, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947511

ABSTRACT

We have developed a single-tube assay for SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples. This assay combined advantages of reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) enzyme Cas12a. Our assay is able to detect SARS-CoV-2 in a single tube within 40 min, requiring only a single temperature control (62 °C). The RT-LAMP reagents were added to the sample vial, while CRISPR Cas12a reagents were deposited onto the lid of the vial. After a half-hour RT-LAMP amplification, the tube was inverted and flicked to mix the detection reagents with the amplicon. The sequence-specific recognition of the amplicon by the CRISPR guide RNA and Cas12a enzyme improved specificity. Visible green fluorescence generated by the CRISPR Cas12a system was recorded using a smartphone camera. Analysis of 100 human respiratory swab samples for the N and/or E gene of SARS-CoV-2 produced 100% clinical specificity and no false positive. Analysis of 50 samples that were detected positive using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) resulted in an overall clinical sensitivity of 94%. Importantly, this included 20 samples that required 30-39 threshold cycles of RT-qPCR to achieve a positive detection. Integration of the exponential amplification ability of RT-LAMP and the sequence-specific processing by the CRISPR-Cas system into a molecular assay resulted in improvements in both analytical sensitivity and specificity. The single-tube assay is beneficial for future point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Anal Chem ; 92(15): 10196-10209, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612210

ABSTRACT

Molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 primarily relies on the detection of RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative infectious agent of the pandemic. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) enables sensitive detection of specific sequences of genes that encode the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E), and spike (S) proteins of the virus. Although RT-PCR tests have been widely used and many alternative assays have been developed, the current testing capacity and availability cannot meet the unprecedented global demands for rapid, reliable, and widely accessible molecular diagnosis. Challenges remain throughout the entire analytical process, from the collection and treatment of specimens to the amplification and detection of viral RNA and the validation of clinical sensitivity and specificity. We highlight the main issues surrounding molecular diagnosis of COVID-19, including false negatives from the detection of viral RNA, temporal variations of viral loads, selection and treatment of specimens, and limiting factors in detecting viral proteins. We discuss critical research needs, such as improvements in RT-PCR, development of alternative nucleic acid amplification techniques, incorporating CRISPR technology for point-of-care (POC) applications, validation of POC tests, and sequencing of viral RNA and its mutations. Improved assays are also needed for environmental surveillance or wastewater-based epidemiology, which gauges infection on the community level through analyses of viral components in the community's wastewater. Public health surveillance benefits from large-scale analyses of antibodies in serum, although the current serological tests do not quantify neutralizing antibodies. Further advances in analytical technology and research through multidisciplinary collaboration will contribute to the development of mitigation strategies, therapeutics, and vaccines. Lessons learned from molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 are valuable for better preparedness in response to other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , False Negative Reactions , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load , Viral Proteins/analysis , Waste Water/analysis
16.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 100, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459047

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the prevalence and spread of coronavirus has had a huge impact on global public health. Due to the incomplete understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of the virus, it is difficult for humans to fight against the virus quickly and effectively once the outbreak occurs. In early 2020, a novel coronavirus was discovered in Wuhan, China. Soon after, similar cases were found in other countries around the world, and the number of infected people increased rapidly. So far, the global cumulative number of infected people has exceeded 3 million, and more than 200,000 people have died, which has had a huge impact on global human health and economic development. Every outbreak of disease makes a deep impression on mankind. Herein, we summarize the virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2, and hope that countries can control the outbreak as soon as possible to minimize the loss.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20083667

ABSTRACT

AimAlthough some studies suggest the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with negative consequences on physical health, our knowledge about the detrimental effects of COVID-19 on peoples mental health is still nascent. This study uses typhoon eye theory to offer insights in helping clinical psychiatrists to screen people with well-being issues during COVID-19 outbreak. MethodsWe collected survey data from working adults across different geographical areas in China on 20 and 21 February 2020 during the outbreak of COVID-19. The sample contains 308 working adults, who were in various parts of China, with varying distance to the epicenter of Wuhan. ResultsIndividual adults distance to the epicenter was negatively associated with life satisfaction ({beta} = -0.235, 95% CI -0.450 to -0.020, p = 0.032). This association between distance and life satisfaction was significant only for adults who were young or had smaller family sizes. For example, the negative relationship was strongest when the individuals were in the age bracket of 20 years old (15.7%; {beta} = -0.703, 95% CI -1.098 to -0.307; p = 0.001) and single (32.3%; {beta} = -0.767, 95% CI -1.125 to -0.408; p < 0.001). ConclusionOur results that peoples well-being deteriorates by the distance from the epicenter for specific groups of people help guide mental healthcare providers towards the regions that are further away from the epicenter in the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. Meanwhile, our results indicate the practitioners should be cautious of using typhoon eye effect for individuals who were older or had a larger family size.

19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20051060

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has continuous outbreaks around the world. Lung is the main organ that be involved. There is a lack of clinical data on the respiratory sounds of COVID-19 infected pneumonia, which includes invaluable information concerning physiology and pathology. The medical resources are insufficient, which are now mainly supplied for the severe patients. The development of a convenient and effective screening method for mild or asymptomatic suspicious patients is highly demanded. MethodsThis is a retrospective case series study. 10 patients with positive results of nucleic acid were enrolled in this study. Lung auscultation was performed by the same physician on admission using a hand-held portable electronic stethoscope delivered in real time via Bluetooth. The recorded audio was exported, and was analyzed by six physicians. Each physician individually described the abnormal breathing sounds that he heard. The results were analyzed in combination with clinical data. Signal analysis was used to quantitatively describe the most common abnormal respiratory sounds. ResultsAll patients were found abnormal breath sounds at least by 3 physicians, and one patient by all physicians. Cackles, asymmetrical vocal resonance and indistinguishable murmurs are the most common abnormal breath sounds. One asymptomatic patient was found vocal resonance, and the result was correspondence with radiographic computed tomography. Signal analysis verified the credibility of the above abnormal breath sounds. ConclusionsThis study describes respiratory sounds of patients with COVID-19, which fills up for the lack of clinical data and provides a simple screening method for suspected patients.

20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20034496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTSWhat are the health and wellbeing of people during the COVID-19 outbreak? We aim to assess the health and wellbeing of normal adults living and working after one month of confinement to contain the COVID-19 outbreak in China. On Feb 20-21, 2020, we surveyed 369 adults in 64 cities in China that varied in their rates of confirmed coronavirus cases on their health conditions, distress and life satisfaction. The participants also reported their work status, whether they had chronic health issues, and the number of hours they exercised per day in the past week. 27% of the participants worked at the office, 38% resorted to working from home, and 25% stopped working due to the outbreak. Those who stopped working reported worse mental and physical health conditions as well as distress. The severity of COVID-19 in an individuals home city predicts their life satisfaction, and this relationship is contingent upon individuals existing chronic health issues and their hours of exercise. Our evidence supports the need to pay attention to the health of people who were not affected by the virus epidemiologically, especially for people who stopped working during the outbreak. Our results highlight that physically active people might be more susceptible to wellbeing issues during the lockdown. Policymakers who are considering introducing restrictive measures to contain COVID-19 may benefit from understanding such health and wellbeing implications.

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