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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 831194, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952320

ABSTRACT

Resulting from severe inflammation and cell destruction, COVID-19 patients could develop pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which remains in the convalescent stage. Nevertheless, how immune response participates in the pathogenesis of PF progression is not well defined. To investigate that question, 12 patients with severe COVID-19 were included in the study. Peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected shortly after their admission and proceeded for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). After 14 days of discharge, the patients were revisited for chest CT scan. PF index (FI) was computed by AI-assisted CT images. Patients were categorized into FIhi and FIlo based on median of FI. By scRNA-seq analysis, our data demonstrated that frequency of CD4+ activated T cells and Treg cells were approximately 3-fold higher in FIhi patients compared with FIlo ones (p < 0.034 for all). By dissecting the differentially expressed genes, we found an overall downregulation of IFN-responsive genes (STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, ISG20, IFIs, and IFITMs) and S100s alarmins (S100A8, S100A9, S100A12, etc.) in all T-cell clusters, and cytotoxicity-related genes (GZMB, PRF1, and GNLY) in CTLs and γδ T cells in the FIhi cohort, compared with FIlo subjects. The GSEA analysis illustrated decreased expression of genes enriched in IFN signaling, innate immune response, adaptive immune response in T cells, NK cells, and monocytes in FIhi patients compared with FIlo ones. In conclusion, these data indicated that the attenuated IFN-responsive genes and their related signaling pathways could be critical for PF progression in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Leukocytes , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837924

ABSTRACT

Resulting from severe inflammation and cell destruction, COVID-19 patients could develop pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which remains in the convalescent stage. Nevertheless, how immune response participates in the pathogenesis of PF progression is not well defined. To investigate that question, 12 patients with severe COVID-19 were included in the study. Peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected shortly after their admission and proceeded for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). After 14 days of discharge, the patients were revisited for chest CT scan. PF index (FI) was computed by AI-assisted CT images. Patients were categorized into FIhi and FIlo based on median of FI. By scRNA-seq analysis, our data demonstrated that frequency of CD4+ activated T cells and Treg cells were approximately 3-fold higher in FIhi patients compared with FIlo ones (p < 0.034 for all). By dissecting the differentially expressed genes, we found an overall downregulation of IFN-responsive genes (STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, ISG20, IFIs, and IFITMs) and S100s alarmins (S100A8, S100A9, S100A12, etc.) in all T-cell clusters, and cytotoxicity-related genes (GZMB, PRF1, and GNLY) in CTLs and γδ T cells in the FIhi cohort, compared with FIlo subjects. The GSEA analysis illustrated decreased expression of genes enriched in IFN signaling, innate immune response, adaptive immune response in T cells, NK cells, and monocytes in FIhi patients compared with FIlo ones. In conclusion, these data indicated that the attenuated IFN-responsive genes and their related signaling pathways could be critical for PF progression in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 749-752, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699338

ABSTRACT

The immunity potency upon natural infection or vaccination is the main concern for the vaccine strategy of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS COV-2 variant), especially the recently reported Omicron variant (B.1.1.529). In this study, 200 recipients immunized with three doses of a COVID-19-inactivated vaccine were enrolled, whose serum samples were collected within 2 months after the third immunization. The neutralizing activity of sera against the pseudotyped Omicron variant, prototype, and Delta variant was determined. Our results demonstrated that the positive neutralization activity was 95.5% for the Omicron variant, 99.5% for the prototype, and 98.5% for the Delta variant. The geometric mean titers (GMT) for the Omicron variant was 49 and maintained sustained immune levels for 2 months, which decreased by 4.9-fold and 3.0-fold compared with the prototype (GMT, 239) and Delta variant (GMT, 148), respectively. In summary, our study demonstrated that three doses of a COVID-19-inactivated vaccine effectively yielded potent cross-neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant at 2 months after the third vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296272

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge from the current global pandemic, some of which can replicate faster and with greater transmissibility and pathogenicity. In particular, UK501Y.V1 identified in UK, SA501Y.V2 in South Africa, and BR501Y.V3 in Brazil are raising serious concerns as they spread quickly and contain spike protein mutations that may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here, we constructed a panel of 28 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses bearing single or combined mutations found in the spike protein of these three variants, as well as additional nine mutations that within or close by the major antigenic sites in the spike protein identified in the GISAID database. These pseudoviruses were tested against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including some approved for emergency use to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, and convalescent patient plasma collected early in the pandemic. SA501Y.V2 pseudovirus was the most resistant, in magnitude and breadth, against mAbs and convalescent plasma, followed by BR501Y.V3, and then UK501Y.V1. This resistance hierarchy corresponds with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain as well as K417N/T, E484K and N501Y mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Crystal structural analysis of RBD carrying triple K417N-E484K-N501Y mutations found in SA501Y.V2 bound with mAb P2C-1F11 revealed a molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3 also acquired substantial ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 for entry. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potentially broadening the host range of SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3, which pose serious challenges to our current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.

9.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1244-1262, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 723585, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399140

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our objective was to determine the antibody and cytokine profiles in different COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVID-19 patients with different clinical classifications were enrolled in this study. The level of IgG antibodies, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgG subclasses targeting N and S proteins were tested using ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined by using a toxin neutralization assay (TNA) with live SARS-CoV-2. The concentrations of 8 cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, CCL2, CXCL10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, were measured using the Protein Sample Ella-Simple ELISA system. The differences in antibodies and cytokines between severe and moderate patients were compared by t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests. Results: A total of 79 COVID-19 patients, including 49 moderate patients and 30 severe patients, were enrolled. Compared with those in moderate patients, neutralizing antibody and IgG-S antibody titers in severe patients were significantly higher. The concentration of IgG-N antibody was significantly higher than that of IgG-S antibody in COVID-19 patients. There was a significant difference in the distribution of IgG subclass antibodies between moderate patients and severe patients. The positive ratio of anti-S protein IgG3 is significantly more than anti-N protein IgG3, while the anti-S protein IgG4 positive rate is significantly less than the anti-N protein IgG4 positive rate. IL-2 was lower in COVID-19 patients than in healthy individuals, while IL-4, IL-6, CCL2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy individuals. IL-6 was significantly higher in severe patients than in moderate patients. The antibody level of anti-S protein was positively correlated with the titer of neutralizing antibody, but there was no relationship between cytokines and neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Our findings show the severe COVID-19 patients' antibody levels were stronger than those of moderate patients, and a cytokine storm is associated with COVID-19 severity. There was a difference in immunoglobulin type between anti-S protein antibodies and anti-N protein antibodies in COVID-19 patients. And clarified the value of the profile in critical prevention.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/classification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5598824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262420

ABSTRACT

Assessing the length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is helpful in optimizing the use efficiency of hospital beds and medical resources and relieving medical resource shortages. This retrospective cohort study of 97 patients was conducted at Beijing You'An Hospital between January 21, 2020, and March 21, 2020. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression based on the smallest Akaike information criterion value was used to select demographic and clinical variables to construct a nomogram. Discrimination, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration, and Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test were used to assess the nomogram model. The median LOS was 13 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 10-18). Age, alanine aminotransferase, pneumonia, platelet count, and PF ratio (PaO2/FiO2) were included in the final model. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.76 (95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.83), and the AUC was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.82-0.95). The adjusted C-index was 0.75 (95%CI = 0.67-0.82) and adjusted AUC 0.86 (95%CI = 0.73-0.95), both after 1000 bootstrap cross internal validations. A Brier score of 0.11 (95%CI = 0.07-0.15) and adjusted Brier score of 0.130 (95%CI = 0.07-0.20) for the calibration curve showed good agreement. The AUC values for the nomogram at LOS of 10, 20, and 30 days were 0.79 (95%CI = 0.69-0.89), 0.89 (95%CI = 0.83-0.96), and 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92-1.00), respectively, and the high fit score of the nomogram model indicated a high probability of hospital stay. These results confirmed that the nomogram model accurately predicted the LOS of patients with COVID-19. We developed and validated a nomogram that incorporated five independent predictors of LOS. If validated in a future large cohort study, the model may help to optimize discharge strategies and, thus, shorten LOS in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Nomograms , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
12.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1611-1621.e5, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260761

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge during the global pandemic and may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here we showed that the South African variant B.1.351 was the most resistant to current monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals, followed by the Brazilian variant P.1 and the United Kingdom variant B.1.1.7. This resistance hierarchy corresponded with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain and K417N/T, E484K, and N501Y mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structure analysis of the B.1.351 triple mutant (417N-484K-501Y) RBD complexed with the monoclonal antibody P2C-1F11 revealed the molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. B.1.351 and P.1 also acquired the ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 receptors for entry. Our results demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potential broadening of the host range for B.1.351 and P.1 variants, which poses serious challenges to current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antigenic Variation/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mice , Mink , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
Cell Res ; 31(7): 732-741, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237995

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants could induce immune escape by mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD). Here we report the humoral immune response to circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as 501Y.V2 (B.1.351), of the plasma and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) elicited by CoronaVac (inactivated vaccine), ZF2001 (RBD-subunit vaccine) and natural infection. Among 86 potent NAbs identified by high-throughput single-cell VDJ sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinees and convalescents, near half anti-RBD NAbs showed major neutralization reductions against the K417N/E484K/N501Y mutation combination, with E484K being the dominant cause. VH3-53/VH3-66 recurrent antibodies respond differently to RBD variants, and K417N compromises the majority of neutralizing activity through reduced polar contacts with complementarity determining regions. In contrast, the 242-244 deletion (242-244Δ) would abolish most neutralization activity of anti-NTD NAbs by interrupting the conformation of NTD antigenic supersite, indicating a much less diversity of anti-NTD NAbs than anti-RBD NAbs. Plasma of convalescents and CoronaVac vaccinees displayed comparable neutralization reductions against pseudo- and authentic 501Y.V2 variants, mainly caused by E484K/N501Y and 242-244Δ, with the effects being additive. Importantly, RBD-subunit vaccinees exhibit markedly higher tolerance to 501Y.V2 than convalescents, since the elicited anti-RBD NAbs display a high diversity and are unaffected by NTD mutations. Moreover, an extended gap between the third and second doses of ZF2001 leads to better neutralizing activity and tolerance to 501Y.V2 than the standard three-dose administration. Together, these results suggest that the deployment of RBD-vaccines, through a third-dose boost, may be ideal for combating SARS-CoV-2 variants when necessary, especially for those carrying mutations that disrupt the NTD supersite.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/pharmacology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 614436, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167338

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which elicits a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, with the potential to lead to death. Although used as the standard method to screen patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection, real-time PCR has challenges in dealing with asymptomatic patients and those with an undetectable viral load. Serological tests are therefore considered potent diagnostic tools to complement real-time PCR-based diagnosis and are used for surveillance of seroprevalence in populations. However, the dynamics of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 currently remain to be investigated. Here, through analysis of plasma samples from 84 patients with COVID-19, we observed that the response of virus-specific antibodies against three important antigens, RBD, N and S, dynamically changed over time and reached a peak 5-8 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The antibody responses were irrespective of sex. Severe cases were found to have higher levels of antibody response, larger numbers of inflammatory cells and C-reactive protein levels. Within the mild/moderate cases, pairwise comparison indicated moderate association between anti-RBD vs. anti-N, anti-RBD vs. anti-S1S2, and anti-N vs. anti-S1S2. Furthermore, the majority of cases could achieve IgM and IgG seroconversion at 2 weeks since the disease onset. Analysis of neutralizing antibodies indicated that these responses were able to last for more than 112 days but decline significantly after the peak. In summary, our findings demonstrate the longitudinally dynamic changes in antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to the knowledge of humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are informative for future development of vaccine and antibody-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Beijing , COVID-19/pathology , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2066-2072, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of medical staff have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with hundreds of deaths reported. Such loss could be prevented if there were a serologic assay for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies for serological surveillance of its infection at the early stage of disease. METHODS: Using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cell-expressed full-length SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein as capturing antigen, a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/SARS-CoV-2 S1 serology enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was developed and validated with negative samples collected prior to the outbreak or during the outbreak and positive samples from patients confirmed with COVID-19. RESULTS: The specificity of the ELISA kit was 97.5%, as examined against total 412 normal human samples. The sensitivity was 97.1% by testing against 69 samples from hospitalized and/or recovered COVID-19 patients. The overall accuracy rate reached 97.3%. The assay was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day 1 after the onset of COVID-19 disease. The average antibody levels increased during hospitalization and 14 days after discharge. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 28 of 276 asymptomatic medical staff and 1 of 5 nucleic acid test-negative "close contacts" of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: With the assays developed here, we can screen medical staff, incoming patients, passengers, and people who are in close contact with the confirmed patients to identify the "innocent viral spreaders," protect the medical staff, and stop further spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , Cricetulus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serologic Tests
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2052-2060, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization characterizes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as a pandemic. Here, we investigated the clinical, cytokine levels; T-cell proportion; and related gene expression occurring in patients with COVID-19 on admission and after initial treatment. METHODS: Eleven patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with similar initial treatment regimens were enrolled in the hospital. Plasma cytokine, peripheral T cell proportions, and microfluidic quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for gene expression were conducted. RESULTS: Five patients with mild and 6 with severe disease were included. Cough and fever were the primary symptoms in the 11 COVID-19 cases. Older age, higher neutrophil count, and higher C-reactive protein levels were found in severe cases. IL-10 level significantly varied with disease progression and treatment. Decreased T-cell proportions were observed in patients with COVID-19, especially in severe cases, and all were returned to normal in patients with mild disease after initial treatment, but only CD4+ T cells returned to normal in severe cases. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased with the disease progression, and decreased after initial treatment. All downregulated DEGs in severe cases mainly involved Th17-cell differentiation, cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, and T-cell activation. After initial treatment in severe cases, MAP2K7 and SOS1 were upregulated relative to that on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a decreased T-cell proportion with downregulated gene expression related to T-cell activation and differentiation occurred in patients with severe COVID-19, which may help to provide effective treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 7/metabolism , Male , Microfluidics , Middle Aged , SOS1 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 134, 2021 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152831

ABSTRACT

To discover new drugs to combat COVID-19, an understanding of the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently needed. Here, for the first time, we report the crucial role of cathepsin L (CTSL) in patients with COVID-19. The circulating level of CTSL was elevated after SARS-CoV-2 infection and was positively correlated with disease course and severity. Correspondingly, SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection increased CTSL expression in human cells in vitro and human ACE2 transgenic mice in vivo, while CTSL overexpression, in turn, enhanced pseudovirus infection in human cells. CTSL functionally cleaved the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and enhanced virus entry, as evidenced by CTSL overexpression and knockdown in vitro and application of CTSL inhibitor drugs in vivo. Furthermore, amantadine, a licensed anti-influenza drug, significantly inhibited CTSL activity after SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection and prevented infection both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CTSL is a promising target for new anti-COVID-19 drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cathepsin L , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Aging Dis ; 11(2): 216-228, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102674

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus (HCoV-19) has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Preventing and reversing the cytokine storm may be the key to save the patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess a comprehensive powerful immunomodulatory function. This study aims to investigate whether MSC transplantation improves the outcome of 7 enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Beijing YouAn Hospital, China, from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 16, 2020. The clinical outcomes, as well as changes of inflammatory and immune function levels and adverse effects of 7 enrolled patients were assessed for 14 days after MSC injection. MSCs could cure or significantly improve the functional outcomes of seven patients without observed adverse effects. The pulmonary function and symptoms of these seven patients were significantly improved in 2 days after MSC transplantation. Among them, two common and one severe patient were recovered and discharged in 10 days after treatment. After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days. In addition, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group. Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was safe and effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially for the patients in critically severe condition.

20.
Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062273

ABSTRACT

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Young Adult
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