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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 883898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952526

ABSTRACT

The herb-pair ginseng-Fuzi (the root of Aconitum carmichaelii) is the material basis of Shenfu prescriptions and is popular in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heart failure, and even shock with severe-stage of COVID-19. A narrow therapeutic window of Fuzi may cause significant regional loss of property and life in clinics. Therefore, systemic elucidation of active components is crucial to improve the safety dose window of Shenfu oral prescriptions. A high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of 10 aconitines in SD rat plasma within 9 min. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were below 0.032 ng/ml and 0.095 ng/ml, respectively. Furthermore, a systemic comparison with their pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration of a safe dosage of 2 g/kg of Fuzi and ginseng-Fuzi decoction for 24 h was conducted. Eight representative diester, monoester, and non-ester aconitines and two new active components (i.e., songorine and indaconitine) were all adopted to elucidating the differences of the pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. The compatibility of Fuzi and ginseng could significantly increase the in vivo exposure of active components. The terminal elimination half-life and the area under the concentration-time curve of mesaconitine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, benzoylhypaconitine, and songorine were all increased significantly. The hypaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, and songorine were regarded as the main active components in vivo, which gave an effective clue for the development of new Shenfu oral prescriptions.

2.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871289

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical features of elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to explore the relationship between COVID-19 patients and kidney injury. Methods: A total of 188 elderly patients with confirmed COVID-19 enrolled in this study were hospitalized for at least 1 week in the Central Theater Command General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army from January 3, 2020 to March 14, 2020. The recorded information included clinical data and results of kidney-related laboratory tests. Retrospective analysis was performed. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (interquartile range 65–78, range: 60–97 years);31.4% were 60–74 years old, and 68.6% were over 75 years old. A total of 12.8% and 18.6% of the patients were in critical and severe stages of COVID-19, respectively. The proportions of patients using mechanical ventilators and deaths were 9.5% and 8.5%, respectively. A total of 26.1% and 8.5% of the patients showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels at admission. A total of 18.6% and 5.9% of the patients had elevated BUN and SCr 1 week after admission, respectively. A total of 3.1% of the patients were diagnosed with acute kidney injury, and 75% of those patients had chronic kidney disease before admission. Compared with the patients aged 60–74 years, those over 75 years exhibited significantly increased proportions of elevated BUN levels, critical illness, use of mechanical ventilated, and death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an elevated BUN level at admission and 1 week after admission were independent risk factors for death in the elderly patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: There were more critical cases and a high mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19. An increased BUN level was an independent risk factor for death in elderly patients with COVID-19.

3.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870745

ABSTRACT

The herb-pair ginseng-Fuzi (the root of Aconitum carmichaelii) is the material basis of Shenfu prescriptions and is popular in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heart failure, and even shock with severe-stage of COVID-19. A narrow therapeutic window of Fuzi may cause significant regional loss of property and life in clinics. Therefore, systemic elucidation of active components is crucial to improve the safety dose window of Shenfu oral prescriptions. A high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of 10 aconitines in SD rat plasma within 9 min. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were below 0.032 ng/ml and 0.095 ng/ml, respectively. Furthermore, a systemic comparison with their pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration of a safe dosage of 2 g/kg of Fuzi and ginseng-Fuzi decoction for 24 h was conducted. Eight representative diester, monoester, and non-ester aconitines and two new active components (i.e., songorine and indaconitine) were all adopted to elucidating the differences of the pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. The compatibility of Fuzi and ginseng could significantly increase the in vivo exposure of active components. The terminal elimination half-life and the area under the concentration-time curve of mesaconitine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, benzoylhypaconitine, and songorine were all increased significantly. The hypaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, and songorine were regarded as the main active components in vivo, which gave an effective clue for the development of new Shenfu oral prescriptions.

4.
Powder Technol ; 405: 117520, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851954

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to severe social and economic disruption worldwide. Although currently no consent has been reached on a specific therapy that can treat COVID-19 effectively, several inhalation therapy strategies have been proposed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. These strategies include inhalations of antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. To investigate how to enhance the therapeutic effect by increasing the delivery efficiency (DE) of the inhaled aerosolized drug particles, a patient-specific tracheobronchial (TB) tree from the trachea up to generation 6 (G6) with moderate COVID-19 symptoms was selected as a testbed for the in silico trials of targeted drug delivery to the lung regions with pneumonia alba, i.e., the severely affected lung segments (SALS). The 3D TB tree geometry was reconstructed from spiral computed tomography (CT) scanned images. The airflow field and particle trajectories were solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based Euler-Lagrange model at an inhalation flow rate of 15 L/min. Particle release maps, which record the deposition locations of the released particles, were obtained at the inlet according to the particle trajectories. Simulation results show that particles with different diameters have similar release maps for targeted delivery to SALS. Point-source aerosol release (PSAR) method can significantly enhance the DE into the SALS. A C++ program has been developed to optimize the location of the PSAR tube. The optimized simulations indicate that the PSAR approach can at least increase the DE of the SALS by a factor of 3.2× higher than conventional random-release drug-aerosol inhalation. The presence of the PSAR tube only leads to a 7.12% change in DE of the SALS. This enables the fast design of a patient-specific treatment for reginal lung diseases.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335275

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis has been intensively investigated, the host mechanisms of viral clearance and inflammation resolution are still elusive because of the ethical limitation of human studies based on COVID-19 convalescents. Here we infected Syrian hamsters by authentic SARS-CoV-2 and built an ideal model to simulate the natural recovery process of SARS-CoV-2 infection from severe pneumonia 1,2 . We developed and applied a spatial transcriptomic sequencing technique with subcellular resolution and tissue-scale extensibility, i.e. , Stereo-seq 3 , together with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), to the entire lung lobes of 45 hamsters and obtained an elaborate map of the pulmonary spatiotemporal changes from acute infection, severe pneumonia to the late viral clearance and inflammation resolution. While SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive damages to the hamster lungs, including naïve T cell infection and deaths related to lymphopenia, we identified a group of monocyte-derived proliferating Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages, which were SARS-CoV-2 infection-inducible and cell death-resistant, recruiting neutrophils to clear viruses together. After viral clearance, the Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages differentiated into Trem2 + and Fbp1 + macrophages, both responsible for inflammation resolution and replenishment of alveolar macrophages. The existence of this specific macrophage subpopulation and its descendants were validated by RNAscope in hamsters, immunofluorescence in hACE2 mice, and public human autopsy scRNA-seq data of COVID-19 patients. The spatiotemporal landscape of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamster lungs and the identification of Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages that is pivotal to viral clearance and inflammation resolution are important to better understand the critical molecular and cellular players of COVID-19 host defense and also develop potential interventions of COVID-19 immunopathology.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331690

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective antiviral drug to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we found that the E, or M membrane proteins of coronavirus could be targeted by a 28-residue antibody mimetic by fusing two antibody Fab complementarity-determining regions (VHCDR1 and VLCDR3) through a cognate framework region (VHFR2) of the antibodies which recognize the coronavirus E or M proteins. We constructed a fusion protein, pheromonicin-covid-19 (PMC-covid-19), by linking colicin Ia, a bactericidal molecule produced by E.coli which kills target cells by forming a voltage-dependent channel in target lipid bilayers, to that antibody mimetic. The E, or M protein/antibody mimetic interaction initiated the formation of irreversible PMC-covid-19 channel in the covid-19 envelope and infected host cell membrane resulting in leakage of cellular contents. PMC-covid-19 demonstrates broad-spectrum protective efficacy against tested variants of coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (p<0.01-0.0001). PMC-covid-19 significantly altered outcomes of in vivo fatal covid-19 challenge infection without evident toxicity, making it an appropriate candidate for further clinical evaluation.

7.
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1730516
8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326542

ABSTRACT

Even before the Covid-19 pandemic, beneficial use cases for hygienic, touchless human-machine interaction have been explored. Gaze input, i.e., information input via eye-movements of users, represents a promising method for contact-free interaction in human-machine systems. In this paper, we present the GazeVending interface (GaVe), which lets users control actions on a display with their eyes. The interface works on a regular webcam, available on most of today's laptops, and only requires a one-point calibration before use. GaVe is designed in a hierarchical structure, presenting broad item cluster to users first and subsequently guiding them through another selection round, which allows the presentation of a large number of items. Cluster/item selection in GaVe is based on the dwell time of fixations, i.e., the time duration that users look at a given Cluster/item. A user study (N=22) was conducted to test optimal dwell time thresholds and comfortable human-to-display distances. Users' perception of the system, as well as error rates and task completion time were registered. We found that all participants were able to use the system with a short time training, and showed good performance during system usage, selecting a target item within a group of 12 items in 6.76 seconds on average. Participants were able to quickly understand and know how to interact with the interface. We provide design guidelines for GaVe and discuss the potentials of the system.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324506

ABSTRACT

Background: As a neglected cross-species parasitic disease transmitted between canines and livestock, echinococcosis remains a global public health concern with a heavy disease burden. In China, especially in the epidemic pastoral communities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the harsh climate, low socio-economic status, poor overall hygiene, and remote and insufficient access to all owned dogs exacerbate the difficulty in implementing the ambitious control programme for echinococcosis. New methods and tools are urgently needed to increase the deworming coverage and frequency, promote real-time scientific surveillance, and prevent transmission of echinococcosis. Methods: : We propose the remote management system (RMS) based on IoT as a novel tool to control smart deworming devices to deliver efficient PZQ baits to dogs regularly and automatically and also as a smart digital management platform to monitor, analyse, and display the epidemic trends of echinococcosis dynamically, in real time. The RMS is an excellent alternative to existing manual deworming methods and management for surveillance of echinococcosis. Results: : The smart collars are fully capable of anti-collision, waterproof, and cold-proof performance, and the battery’s energy is sufficient. The RMS can accurately analyse the monitoring data and parameters including positive rates of canine faeces, and the prevalence of echinococcosis in the general population livestock, and children. The data of dogs deworming and surveillance for echinococcosis is able to be controlled using RMS and has expanded gradually in townships to the whole Hezuo region. A total of 48 administrators (3, 3, 8, 11, 23 at the provincial, municipal, county, township, village levels, respectively) participated in the questionnaire survey, with 93.8% of its overall satisfaction rate. Conclusion: The existing difficulties and challenges in the way of prevention and control for echinococcosis can partially be resolved using the innovative, IoT-based technologies and tools. The proposed RMS to advance the upgrade of existing manual prevention and control models for echinococcosis, especially in the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as social distance and community blockade continue.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323886

ABSTRACT

The herb-pair Gingseng-Fuzi (the root of Aconitum carmichaelii ) is named as Shenfu prescriptions and is popular in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of heart failure, and even shock with severe-stage COVID-19. However, a narrow therapeutic window of Fuzi may cause significant regional loss of property and life in clinics. Therefore, systemic elucidation of compatibility mechanism using in vivo comparative exposure is particularly crucial to improve the safety dose window of Shenfu prescriptions. A high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of 11 aconitines in SD rat plasma within 9 min, and a systemic comparison with their pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration of a safe dosage of 2 g/Kg of Fuzi and Ginseng-Fuzi decoction for 24 h was conducted. Nine representative diester, monoester, and non-ester aconitines and two new active components ( e . g . songorine and indaconitine) were all adopted to elucidation of the differences of the contents in decoction and the pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo , including the terminal elimination half-life (T1/2), area under the concentration-time curve, mean residence time, time to achieve maximum concentration (Cmax), and maximum plasma concentration. It was found that the compatibility with Fuzi and gingseng could significantly increase their bioavailability of active components. Moreover, the in vivo exposure and the T1/2 of diester aconitines (aconitine and mesaconitine) and the monoester aconitines (benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, and benzoylhypaconitine) were all increased significantly, indicating the efficacy was increased simultaneously. Songorine shown the largest Cmax with a potential decardiotoxicity ability. This study provided a solid pharmacokinetic parameters for development of safe and effective new Shenfu oral prescriptions.

11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(12): 976-983, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to present a major challenge to public health. Vaccine development requires an understanding of the kinetics of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In total, 605 serum samples from 125 COVID-19 patients (from January 1 to March 14, 2020) varying in age, sex, severity of symptoms, and presence of underlying diseases were collected, and antibody titers were measured using a micro-neutralization assay with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: NAbs were detectable approximately 10 days post-onset (dpo) of symptoms and peaked at approximately 20 dpo. The NAb levels were slightly higher in young males and severe cases, while no significant difference was observed for the other classifications. In follow-up cases, the NAb titer had increased or stabilized in 18 cases, whereas it had decreased in 26 cases, and in one case NAbs were undetectable at the end of our observation. Although a decreasing trend in NAb titer was observed in many cases, the NAb level was generally still protective. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that NAb levels vary among all categories of COVID-19 patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine the longevity and protective efficiency of NAbs induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Journal of Hydrology ; 603:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1568844

ABSTRACT

• Hybrid ELM models (PSO-ELM, GA-ELM and ABC-ELM) were proposed for estimating ET 0 in different climate zones of China. • PSO-ELM model had the highest accuracy, followed by GA-ELM and ABC-ELM. • Hybrid ELM models outperformed standalone ELM and empirical models in different climate zones. • PSO-ELM model with T max , T min and RH obtained accurate ET 0 estimates in TCZ, SMZ and TMZ. • PSO-ELM model with only T max and T min was better performance on ET 0 estimates in MPZ. Accurate prediction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ET 0) is important for regional water resources management and optimal design of agricultural irrigation system. In this study, three hybrid models (PSO-ELM, GA-ELM and ABC-ELM) integrating the extreme learning machine model (ELM) with three biological heuristic algorithms, i.e., PSO, GA and ABC, were proposed for predicting daily ET 0 based on daily meteorological data from 2000 to 2019 at twelve representative stations in different climatic zones of China. The performances of the three hybrid ELM models were further compared with the standalone ELM model and three empirical models (Hargreaves, Priestley-Talor and Makkink models). The results showed that the hybrid ELM models (R 2 = 0.973–0.999) all performed better than the standalone ELM model (R 2 = 0.955–0.989) in four climatic regions in China. The estimation accuracy of the empirical models was relatively lower, with R2 of 0.822–0.887 and RMSE of 0.381–1.951 mm/d. The R 2 values of PSO-ELM, GA-ELM and ABC-ELM models were 0.993, 0.986 and 0.981 and the RMSE values were 0.266 mm/d, 0.306 mm/d and 0.404 mm/d, respectively, indicating that the PSO-ELM model had the best performance. When setting T max , T min and RH as the model inputs, the PSO-ELM model presented better performance in the temperate continental zone (TCZ), subtropical monsoon region (SMZ) and temperate monsoon zone (TMZ) climate zones, with R 2 of 0.892, 0866 and 0.870 and RMSE of 0.773 mm/d, 0.597 mm/d and 0.832 mm/d, respectively. The PSO-ELM model also performed in the mountain plateau region (MPZ) when only T max and T min data were available, with R2 of 0.808 and RMSE of 0.651 mm/d. All the three biological heuristic algorithms effectively improved the performance of the ELM model. Particularly, the PSO-ELM was recommended as a promising model realizing the high-precision estimation of daily ET 0 with fewer meteorological parameters in different climatic zones of China. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Hydrology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Talanta ; 239: 123086, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556287

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic infection of COVID-19 is a global threat for public health. Unfortunately, the study about metabolic dysregulation of asymptomatic infection is barely investigated. Here, we performed carboxylic submetabolome profiling of serum from 62 asymptomatic and 122 control individuals, by a highly sensitive chemical isotope labelling method. Twenty-one discriminative carboxylic features, including 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, cholic acid, glycoursodeoxycholic acid and 15,16-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoic acid were discovered to be dysregulated in asymptomatic patients. This panel containing 21 carboxylic features could accurately identify asymptomatic patients based on a random forest model, providing an accuracy of 85.7% with only 3.6% false positive rate and 7.1% false negative rate. The dysregulated metabolites found in asymptomatic patients covered several important pathways, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, synthesis of bile acid, ß-oxidation of fatty acids, activation of macrophage and platelet aggregation. This work provided valuable knowledge about serum biomarkers and molecular clues associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , Fatty Acids , Humans , Isotope Labeling , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 722219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518491

ABSTRACT

The tolerance of certain multi-drug resistant bacteria to disinfectants may be promoted while the requirements of environmental disinfection have been raised in the high-risk areas of medical institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current research addressed the mechanisms underlying a sharp increase in the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) observed in a closed-management unit of elderly patients with mental disorders in 2020 as compared with the previous 4 years. We first conducted microbial detection in staff-hand and environment and a molecular epidemiology analysis, rejecting the hypothesis that the MRSA increase was due to an outbreak. Afterward, we turned to disinfectant concentration and frequency of use and analyzed the varied MRSA detection rates with different concentrations and frequencies of disinfection in 2020 and the previous 4 years. The MRSA detection rate increased with elevated concentration and frequency of disinfection, with 1,000 or 500 mg/L two times per day since January in 2020 vs. 500 mg/L 2-3 times per week in 2016-2019. When the disinfectant concentration was reduced from 1,000 to 500 mg/L, the MRSA detection decreased which indicated a modulatory role of disinfectant concentration. With a sustained frequency of disinfection in 2020, the MRSA detection rate was still higher, even after May, than that in the previous years. This suggested that the frequency of disinfection also contributed to the MRSA increase. Overall, the MRSA detection was augmented with the increase in disinfection concentration and frequency during the COVID-19 epidemic, suggesting that highly-concentrated and highly-frequent preventive long-term disinfection is not recommended without risk assessments in psychiatric hospitals.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26538, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494086

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation has been associated with poor patient prognosis. In this study, we assessed the effects of different drugs and cardiac injury on QTc interval prolongation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The study cohort consisted of 395 confirmed COVID-19 cases from the Wuhan Union Hospital West Campus. All hospitalized patients were treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), quinolones, interferon, Arbidol, or Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD) and received at least 1 electrocardiogram after drug administration.Fifty one (12.9%) patients exhibited QTc prolongation (QTc ≥ 470 ms). QTc interval prolongation was associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality (both P < .001). Administration of CQ/HCQ (odds ratio [OR], 2.759; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.318-5.775; P = .007), LPV/r (OR, 2.342; 95% CI, 1.152-4.760; P = .019), and quinolones (OR, 2.268; 95% CI, 1.171-4.392; P = .015) increased the risk of QTc prolongation. In contrast, the administration of Arbidol, interferon, or QPD did not increase the risk of QTc prolongation. Notably, patients treated with QPD had a shorter QTc duration than those without QPD treatment (412.10 [384.39-433.77] vs 420.86 [388.19-459.58]; P = .042). The QTc interval was positively correlated with the levels of cardiac biomarkers (creatine kinase-MB fraction [rho = 0.14, P = .016], high-sensitivity troponin I [rho = .22, P < .001], and B-type natriuretic peptide [rho = 0.27, P < .001]).In conclusion, QTc prolongation was associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. The risk of QTc prolongation was higher in patients receiving CQ/HCQ, LPV/r, and quinolones. QPD had less significant effects on QTc prolongation than other antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Indoles/adverse effects , Interferons/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Quinolones/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Angewandte Chemie ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1381838

ABSTRACT

The direct visualization of vaccine fate is important to investigate its immunoactivation process in order to elucidate the detailed molecular reaction process at single-molecular level. Yet, visualization of the spatiotemporal trafficking of vaccines remains poorly explored. Here, we show that quantum dot (QD) nanomaterials allow for monitoring vaccine dynamics and for amplified immune response. Synthetic QDs enable efficient conjugation of antigen and adjuvants to target tissues and cells, and non-invasive imaging the trafficking dynamics to lymph nodes and cellular compartments. The nanoparticle vaccine elicits potent immune responses and anti-tumor efficacy alone or in combination with programmed cell death protein 1 blockade. The synthetic QDs showed high fluorescence quantum yield and superior photostability, and the reliable and long-term spatiotemporal tracking of vaccine dynamics was realized for the first time by using the synthetic QDs, providing a powerful strategy for studying the immune response and for evaluating the vaccine efficacy.

17.
Gland Surg ; 10(8): 2477-2489, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recently years, breast endoscopic reconstruction surgery is becoming increasingly popular. And we have explored a series of endoscopic breast reconstruction procedures and applied it to our day surgery under the epidemic control of the novel coronavirus. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent unilateral breast endoscopic reconstruction surgery in the West China Hospital from April 2017 to February 2021 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the following three groups: ward exploration period (WEP), ward maturation period (WMP), and day surgery period (DSP), respectively. We compared the results of postoperative complications, hospitalization costs, operation time, and BREAST-Q (a patient-reported outcome instrument measuring health-related quality-of-life and patient satisfaction in breast surgery) scale scores among the three groups of patients. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were included (WEP n=30, WMP n=14, DSP n=22). Four people refused to complete the BREAST-Q scale, and five patients missed complication record sheets. Patients in the DSP and WMP groups had slightly higher postoperative satisfaction with their breasts than WEP, but there was no statistically significant difference (3 months postoperatively: WEP vs. WMP =0.515, WEP vs. DSP =0.418, WMP vs. DSP =0.982). On the postoperative BREAST-Q scale scores of psychosocial, sexual life and chest well-being, patients with DSP scored slightly higher than those with WEP versus WMP, but there was no statistically significant difference. The incidence of postoperative complications was generally higher in the WEP group than in the WMP and DSP groups, but there was no statistically significant incidence of either major or minor complications (P=1.000). With the use of prostheses and mesh, patients in the DSP group had lower hospitalization costs than other two groups. In terms of operative time, patients in the WMP and DSP groups had shorter operative times compared with the WEP group, and the results were statistically significant (WEP vs. WMP =0.000, WEP vs. DSP =0.000, WMP vs. DSP =0.243). CONCLUSIONS: We believe that performing our newly developed endoscopic breast reconstructive surgery at a day surgery center is safe and reliable.

18.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 14(6):241-253, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1310155

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategies in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients suffering from cardiogenic cardiac arrest. During CPR, both healthcare and non-healthcare workers who provide resuscitation are at risk of infection. The Working Group for Expert Consensus on Prevention and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest in COVID-19 has developed this Chinese Expert Consensus to guide clinical practice of CPR in COVID-19 patients. Main recommendations: (1) A medical team should be assigned to evaluate severe and critical COVID-19 for early monitoring of cardiac-arrest warning signs. (2) Psychological counseling and treatment are highly recommended, since sympathetic and vagal abnormalities induced by psychological stress from the COVID-19 pandemic can induce cardiac arrest. (3) Healthcare workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE). (4) Mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be avoided on patients suspected of having or diagnosed with COVID-19. (5) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression are recommended. (6) Tracheal-intubation procedures should be optimized and tracheal-intubation strategies should be implemented early. (7) CPR should be provided for 20-30 min. (8) Various factors should be taken into consideration such as the interests of patients and family members, ethics, transmission risks, and laws and regulations governing infectious disease control. Changes in management: The following changes or modifications to CPR strategy in COVID-19 patients are proposed: (1) Healthcare workers should wear PPE. (2) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression can be implemented to reduce or avoid the spread of viruses by aerosols. (3) Both the benefits to patients and the risk of infection should be considered. (4) Hhealthcare workers should be fully aware of and trained in CPR strategies and procedures specifically for patients with COVID-19.

19.
J Aerosol Sci ; 147: 105585, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163971

ABSTRACT

It has been confirmed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can transmit through droplets created when an infected human coughs or sneezes. Accordingly, 1.83-m (6-feet) social distancing is advised to reduce the spread of the disease among humans. This is based on the assumption that no air circulation exists around people. However, it is not well investigated whether the ambient wind and relative humidity (RH) will cause SARS-CoV-2 laden droplets to transport farther in the air, and make the current social distancing policy insufficient. To provide evidence and insight into the "social distancing" guidelines, a validated computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) model was employed to simulate the transient transport, condensation/evaporation, and deposition of SARS-CoV-2 laden droplets emitted by coughs, with different environmental wind velocities and RHs. Initial droplet diameters range from 2 to 2000 µm, and the wind velocities range from 0 to 16 km/h, representing different wind forces from calm air to moderate breeze. The comparison between a steady-state wind and a gust with a constant frequency has also been performed. Ambient RHs are 40% and 99.5%. The distances between the two virtual humans are 1.83 m and 3.05 m (6 feet and 10 feet). The facial covering effect on reducing the airborne transmission of the cough droplets has also been evaluated. Numerical results indicate that the ambient wind will enhance the complexity of the secondary flows with recirculation between the two virtual humans. Microdroplets follow the airflow streamlines well and deposit on both human bodies and head regions, even with the 3.05-m (10-feet) separation distance. The rest of the microdroplets can transport in the air farther than 3.05 m (10 feet) due to wind convection, causing a potential health risk to nearby people. High RH will increase the droplet sizes due to the hygroscopic growth effect, which increases the deposition fractions on both humans and the ground. With the complex environmental wind and RH conditions, the 6-feet social distancing policy may not be sufficient to protect the inter-person aerosol transmission, since the suspending micro-droplets were influenced by convection effects and can transport from the human coughs/sneezes to the other human in less than 5 seconds. Due to the complex real-world environmental ventilation conditions, a social distance longer than 1.83 m (6 feet) needs to be considered. Wearing masks should also be recommended for both infected and healthy humans to reduce the airborne cough droplet numbers.

20.
Interdiscip Neurosurg ; 25: 101172, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been spreading worldwide at hitherto unknown speed, and the treatment of neuro-oncology patients without COVID-19 has been greatly affected. METHODS: To compare the medical records and surgical results of surgical patients before and after the pandemic. We collected a total of 80 patients form April 2020 to May 2020 after pandemic and from April 2019 to May 2019 before pandemic. The patient's demographics, past medical history, comorbidities, imaging, pathology, laboratory teat, and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) were analyzed. RESULTS: The most common presenting symptom was intracranial hypertension and neurological deficit. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbid diseases. The pre-operation KPS were 83.21 ± 15.60, 80 ± 14.77, 78.57 ± 12.83 and 74.14 ± 12.72, respectively. The post-operation KPS were 94.64 ± 8.65, 95.45 ± 6.56, 91.43 ± 10.82 and 84.21 ± 22.55, respectively. The tumor volume was larger and the midline shift distance was greater after the pandemic than before. For pathological grade, meningiomas were mostly grade I, while gliomas were mainly grade III and IV. CONCLUSION: Although affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with glioma should be operated as soon as possible to obtain better surgical results, however, for patients with meningiomas, their operation can be postponed slightly when the patients are tolerable.

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