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1.
Chinese Science Bulletin-Chinese ; 67(16):1783-1795, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307753

ABSTRACT

In response to the construction process of Healthy China. it is rather important to create a safe, healthy and energy-efficient indoor environment for public buildings. The public building space is often densely populated, with a large flow of people and many types of air pollution, which presents non-uniform dynamic distribution characteristics. This brings great challenges to the control of indoor air safety, especially during the pandemic period of COVID-19. Excessive ventilation may not only cause large energy waste. but also lead to cross-contamination and even a cluster of infection. In this paper, an operation and maintenance (O&M) control system for indoor air safety is developed based on the core concepts and basic methods of human ergonomics. In this system, one of the important human environmental variables is focused for control, i.e.. indoor air pollution level. Especially after the outbreak of COVID-19. droplets and droplet nuclei from respiration are the most significant air pollution categories required for mitigation. Towards the efficient control of air pollution in large public buildings. it should further take into account the interaction of human, equipment and machines (i.e., ventilation_ air purification and disinfection and intelligent control system) and building environment. Firstly, on the basis of the online monitoring of indoor air pollution concentration and personnel flow, the non-uniform dynamic distribution of indoor pollutants and personnel can be obtained by using the non-uniform and low-dimensional rapid prediction models and computer vision processing. Then, the optimal setting results of ventilation parameters (e.g., ventilation modes, supply air rate. etc.) can be outputted by the environmental control decision system. Finally, based on a combination of monitoring sensors, controllers and actuator hardware equipment (at the location of fans or dampers), the intelligent regulation and control of ventilation system can be realized, aimed at minimizing energy consumption and reducing pollutant concentration and exposure level. Meanwhile, the air purification and disinfection system (especially for the disinfection of virus particles) are operated under the condition of the ventilated environment, which can serve as a powerful auxiliary to the maintenance of indoor air safety. The workflow and effect of the O&M control system are demonstrated by an engineering application case of the front hall in the International Convention and Exhibition Center. The results indicate that the non-uniform and low-dimensional rapid prediction model for pollutant concentration is effective for the ventilation control with the average prediction difference of 11.9%. The implementation of the intelligent ventilation system can reduce the risk of human infection to less than 4%. and its energy-saving ratio for the ventilation can be as high as about 45%. Through optimizing the layout strategies of disinfection devices based on the intelligent ventilation control, the space accessibility of negative oxygen ions can be well accepted, to further increase the removal efficiency of air pollution. The calculated value of space disinfection rate is more than 99%, which can further reduce the risk of infection by 1-2 orders of magnitude. This study can provide an important reference for the promotion and upgrading of O&M control system for indoor air safety.

3.
Economics Letters ; 226, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2294974

ABSTRACT

This paper constructs macroeconomic uncertainty indices for China from 2009 to 2021 based on the distribution of forecast errors of major macroeconomic variables. The indices effectively capture the economy's deep slump and rebound in 2020. This study reveals a negative relationship between macroeconomic uncertainty and firms' investment, with downside uncertainty having a larger negative impact than upside uncertainty. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

4.
Physica Scripta ; 98(4), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2270102

ABSTRACT

The filtration efficiency deterioration over operating time due to exposure to particles, organic solvents and other factors is an obvious defect of electret filter, especially during the coronavirus pandemic. Electrostatic enhanced method has been proposed as a promising way to improve the filtration efficiency and service time of electret filters without increasing the pressure drop. In this work, the effect of discharge electrode structure and operation mode of the electrostatic enhanced structure(EES) on the filtration efficiency of commercial pleated electret filters were studied firstly, then the EES was installed in a special designed prototype air purifier, two key indicators of air purifiers(clean air delivery rate (CADR) and cumulate clean mass (CCM)) were tested to evaluate the actual performance improvement of electret filters by the electrostatic enhanced method. It was found that the discharge electrode structure had significant influence on the filtration efficiency and multi-wire array electrode was more suitable for the discharge electrode to pleated filter to ground mesh structure used in this paper. The decayed electrostatic charges of pleated electret filter cannot be recharged again through the EES in actual operation condition. The filtration efficiency improvement of the test pleated electret filters was dominantly contributed by particle charging. The filter polarizing induced by the external electric field was helpful in increasing the filtration efficiency when the particles were charged while its effect on uncharged particles was almost negligible. Besides, the actual performance of the prototype air purifier indicated that the EES can alleviate the filtration efficiency deterioration of test electret filters and extend the service life of H11 and H13 filters by more than 3 and 1.5 times respectively according to the CCM test results. © 2023 IOP Publishing Ltd.

5.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 35(2):97-104, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2288487

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (NCP) is a class B infectious disease, which is prevented and controlled according to class A infectious diseases. Recently, children's NCP cases have gradually increased, and children's fever outpatient department has become the first strategic pass to stop the epidemic.Strengthening the management of the fever diagnosis process is very important for early detection of suspected children, early isolation, early treatment and prevention of cross-infection. This article proposes prevention and control strategies for fever diagnosis, optimizes processes, prevents cross-infection, health protection and disinfection of medical staff, based on the relevant diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control programs of the National Health and Health Commission and on the diagnosis and treatment experience of experts in various provinces and cities. The present guidance summarizes current strategies on pre-diagnosis;triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in common fever, suspected and confirmed children, which provide practical suggestions on strengthening the management processes of children's fever in outpatient department during the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic period.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

6.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 35(15):1121-1124, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2258973

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) reported in the United States and European countries is a disease with multi-organ involved symptoms related with 2019 Novel Coronavirus infection, which has never been reported in China. Although its symptoms are similar to Kawasaki disease, MIS-C has characteristics of higher frequency in older children and adolescents, gastrointestinal symptoms, haemodynamic instability, myocarditis and elevated inflammatory markers. Most of the children need intensive care. The pathogenesis and long-term prognosis of the disease need further study.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

7.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 32(2):323-342, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2246175

ABSTRACT

Due to the large height and span of indoor spaces, efficient indoor ventilation performance may be difficult to achieve using the side air supply for large halls, to control the indoor air pollutants or reduce the infection risk, such as the transmission of COVID-19 within the breathing zone of occupants. An efficient Ventilation Mode with Deflector and Slot air outlets (VMDS) was developed by this study. The use of a deflector with slot air outlets was introduced by utilizing jet collision and adhesion effect to accentuate the ventilation performance of the side air supply for the large space. The numerical simulation model used in this study was validated experimentally. The VMDS was compared with three other side air supply modes used in large spaces, and the results were evaluated comprehensively. The results show that VMDS is effective in reducing indoor air pollutant concentrations and transmission of infectious diseases in large spaces while satisfying the energy efficiency and thermal comfort requirements. Compared with the common side-supply and side-return ventilation modes, VMDS can reduce indoor air pollutant concentration by nearly 40%, reduce the transmission risk of infectious disease to less than 1% at a low air change rate and increase the ventilation efficiency from about 0.85 to about 1.2. In addition, VMDS can theoretically reduce ventilation energy consumption by about 85%. © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):334, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188905

ABSTRACT

Nursing facilities (NFs) have historically struggled to maintain adequate nurse staffing. We used PBJ data linked with other publicly available sources and conducted stakeholder interviews to understand nurse staffing between 2019 and 2020. We found large declines in the population of NF residents and in staffing hours. Measured in hours per resident day (HPRD) to account for the size of the NF resident population, there were slight increases in staffing. Staffing was nonetheless a major challenge for NFs because they required increased staffing due to the impact of the pandemic. NFs in higher quartiles of percentage of minority residents lost nurse staffing HPRD relative to NFs in the lowest quartile of minority residents. Stakeholders explained that NFs with more minority residents were likely to employ staff who live in more vulnerable communities with a greater concentration of minorities, who were more impacted by COVID.

9.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):333-4, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188904

ABSTRACT

The media has reported recent increases in nursing home closures. This study examined closures from 2011-2019, identified facility and market characteristics associated with closures, and assessed the impact of closures on quality and access. We identified closures using termination dates and gaps in certification surveys and conducted descriptive and multivariate analysis. We identified 1,220 closures, with large increases in closure rates in 2018 and 2019 and geographic clusters. Chain facilities, urban facilities and smaller facilities were more likely to close, as were facilities with higher percentages of non-white and Medicaid residents. Staffing and quality five-star ratings had a nonlinear relationship with closure, which suggests Medicaid funding may impact closures rates. We found both the number of beds per 1,000 elderly and occupancy rates decreased, including in high-quality facilities. Closures should be examined further in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(10): 1395-1400, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090421

ABSTRACT

In the context of the global pandemic of COVID-19, the epidemic intensity, epidemic characteristics and infection risk of influenza have presented new features. COVID-19 and influenza have simultaneously emerged in many regions of the world. COVID-19 and influenza are similar in terms of transmission mode, clinical symptoms and other aspects. There are also similarities in the mechanism of influenza virus and novel coronavirus on cells. At the same time, it is feasible and significant to do a good job in the prevention and control of COVID-19 and influenza. This paper discusses the relevant strategies and measures for the joint prevention and control of influenza and novel coronavirus from the aspects of influenza vaccination to prevent co-infection, simultaneous vaccination of influenza vaccine and novel coronavirus vaccine, etc., and puts forward corresponding thoughts and suggestions, in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of strategies on seasonal influenza vaccine and novel coronavirus vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2
11.
18th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2022 ; 13394 LNCS:722-730, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2085270

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and SARS virus are two related coronaviruses. In recent years, the increasingly serious epidemic situation has become the focus of all human beings, and has brought a significant impact on daily life. So, we proposed a link analysis of the two viruses. We obtained all the required COVID-19 and SARS virus data from the Uniprot database website, and we preprocessed the data after obtaining the data. In the prediction of the binding site of the COVID-19 and SARS, it is to judge the validity between the two binding sites. In response to this problem, we used Adaboost, voting-classifier and SVM classifier, and compared different classifier strategies through experiments. Among them, Metal binding site can effectively improve the accuracy of protein binding site prediction, and the effect is more obvious. Provide assistance for bioinformatics research. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
Chinese Science Bulletin-Chinese ; 67(16):1783-1795, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928264

ABSTRACT

In response to the construction process of Healthy China. it is rather important to create a safe, healthy and energy-efficient indoor environment for public buildings. The public building space is often densely populated, with a large flow of people and many types of air pollution, which presents non-uniform dynamic distribution characteristics. This brings great challenges to the control of indoor air safety, especially during the pandemic period of COVID-19. Excessive ventilation may not only cause large energy waste. but also lead to cross-contamination and even a cluster of infection. In this paper, an operation and maintenance (O&M) control system for indoor air safety is developed based on the core concepts and basic methods of human ergonomics. In this system, one of the important human environmental variables is focused for control, i.e.. indoor air pollution level. Especially after the outbreak of COVID-19. droplets and droplet nuclei from respiration are the most significant air pollution categories required for mitigation. Towards the efficient control of air pollution in large public buildings. it should further take into account the interaction of human, equipment and machines (i.e., ventilation_ air purification and disinfection and intelligent control system) and building environment. Firstly, on the basis of the online monitoring of indoor air pollution concentration and personnel flow, the non-uniform dynamic distribution of indoor pollutants and personnel can be obtained by using the non-uniform and low-dimensional rapid prediction models and computer vision processing. Then, the optimal setting results of ventilation parameters (e.g., ventilation modes, supply air rate. etc.) can be outputted by the environmental control decision system. Finally, based on a combination of monitoring sensors, controllers and actuator hardware equipment (at the location of fans or dampers), the intelligent regulation and control of ventilation system can be realized, aimed at minimizing energy consumption and reducing pollutant concentration and exposure level. Meanwhile, the air purification and disinfection system (especially for the disinfection of virus particles) are operated under the condition of the ventilated environment, which can serve as a powerful auxiliary to the maintenance of indoor air safety. The workflow and effect of the O&M control system are demonstrated by an engineering application case of the front hall in the International Convention and Exhibition Center. The results indicate that the non-uniform and low-dimensional rapid prediction model for pollutant concentration is effective for the ventilation control with the average prediction difference of 11.9%. The implementation of the intelligent ventilation system can reduce the risk of human infection to less than 4%. and its energy-saving ratio for the ventilation can be as high as about 45%. Through optimizing the layout strategies of disinfection devices based on the intelligent ventilation control, the space accessibility of negative oxygen ions can be well accepted, to further increase the removal efficiency of air pollution. The calculated value of space disinfection rate is more than 99%, which can further reduce the risk of infection by 1-2 orders of magnitude. This study can provide an important reference for the promotion and upgrading of O&M control system for indoor air safety.

13.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(2):118-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843202

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has rapidly spread to many countries worldwide. The initial reports showed that the incidence rate in adults was higher, while children and adolescents had fewer cases of infection. However, the number of COVID-19 cases has gradually increased in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the percentage of children and/or adolescents of the total patients diagnosed with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to find relevant studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataMP 14 software. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The final results showed that the percentage of children and/or adolescents of all COVID-19 cases was 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.07], which meant an average of 6 cases in children per 10,000 COVID-19 cases. The percentage of children and/or adolescents with COVID-19 was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.00-0.10) in Asia, South America, North America and Europe, respectively. The present study showed a low percentage of COVID-19 cases of children and/or adolescents, but not without infection risk. Therefore, we should pay attention to the cases of children and/or adolescents during the COVID-19 period and raise our vigilance. © 2022, Medcom Limited. All rights reserved.

15.
China CDC Weekly ; 2(6):83-86, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445121
16.
Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics ; : 35, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1384540

ABSTRACT

Using recently available GRESB ESG public disclosure data for REITs around the world, we examine how ESG disclosure is related to REIT debt financing and firm value. We find that REITs with higher levels of ESG disclosure have lower cost of debt, higher credit ratings, and higher unsecured debt to total debt ratio, controlling for key firm characteristics. These findings suggest that improving ESG disclosure can help REITs to gain better access to the capital markets and enhance corporate financial flexibility, as lenders have paid close attention to a firm's ESG disclosure and integrated evaluation of ESG factors into their lending decisions. Moreover, firm value of REITs is positively associated with their ESG disclosure level. When using the Covid-19 pandemic as a quasi-experimental setting, we find evidence that REITs with higher ESG disclosure levels before the pandemic exhibit higher firm value during the pandemic. These results indicate that investors do value active ESG disclosure by REITs. Additional analyses show that ESG disclosure level is sensitive to institutional ownership, implying that institutional investors may drive REIT ESG disclosure efforts. Taken together, this paper suggests that effective ESG disclosure can have a positive impact on REIT debt financing and firm value due to the increased corporate transparency, and the ESG reporting framework developed by GRESB appears to be effective to provide transparency and comparability across the global real estate industry.

17.
Applied Sciences (Switzerland) ; 11(16), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1365591

ABSTRACT

The world today is being hit by COVID-19. As opposed to fingerprints and ID cards, facial recognition technology can effectively prevent the spread of viruses in public places because it does not require contact with specific sensors. However, people also need to wear masks when entering public places, and masks will greatly affect the accuracy of facial recognition. Accurately performing facial recognition while people wear masks is a great challenge. In order to solve the problem of low facial recognition accuracy with mask wearers during the COVID-19 epidemic, we propose a masked-face recognition algorithm based on large margin cosine loss (MFCosface). Due to insufficient masked-face data for training, we designed a masked-face image generation algorithm based on the detection of the detection of key facial features. The face is detected and aligned through a multi-task cascaded convolutional network;and then we detect the key features of the face and select the mask template for coverage according to the positional information of the key features. Finally, we generate the corresponding masked-face image. Through analysis of the masked-face images, we found that triplet loss is not applicable to our datasets, because the results of online triplet selection contain fewer mask changes, making it difficult for the model to learn the relationship between mask occlusion and feature mapping. We use a large margin cosine loss as the loss function for training, which can map all the feature samples in a feature space with a smaller intra-class distance and a larger inter-class distance. In order to make the model pay more attention to the area that is not covered by the mask, we designed an Att-inception module that combines the Inception-Resnet module and the convolutional block attention module, which increases the weight of any unoccluded area in the feature map, thereby enlarging the unoccluded area’s contribution to the identification process. Experiments on several masked-face datasets have proved that our algorithm greatly improves the accuracy of masked-face recognition, and can accurately perform facial recognition with masked subjects. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

18.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 30(6):727-731, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1338899
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(26): 2029-2036, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317266

ABSTRACT

The disease burden and economic burden of seasonal influenza is substantial in China, and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought new challenges to the prevention and control of influenza. As a priority group of influenza vaccination, the elderly are at higher risk of influenza-associated severe symptoms and deaths, and they are more price-sensitive vaccine users with better cost-effectiveness of vaccination program. Therefore, a reasonable financing mechanism of influenza vaccination should be designed for the elderly to increase their vaccination rate. This study proposes three financing strategies of influenza vaccination for the elderly in China, trying to explore the distribution of vaccination costs among individuals, central government and local governments under different financing strategies, including the individual-central-local mechanism (strategy 1), the central-local mechanism (strategy 2), and the local payment mechanism (strategy 3). Strategy 1 is feasible and sustainable for most regions in the short term. Strategy 2 is conducive to further increasing the vaccine coverage rate of the elderly. Strategy 3 encourages local fiscal payments to help relieve the financial pressure of the central government. The results revealed a relatively heavy financial burden of influenza vaccination for the elderly, and it is recommended to promote the development of a multiparty co-payment mechanism gradually based on local conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , China , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
2020 2nd International Conference on Computer Science Communication and Network Security ; 336, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313621

ABSTRACT

Given that the risk of the COVID-19 epidemic still exists and the flow of patients is difficult to monitor, identifying the people who have had close contact with the confirmed cases is important in anti-epidemic tasks whether in areas where the epidemic is developing rapidly or in areas where the epidemic has been phase-controlled. This article discusses how to locate people who have been in close contact with confirmed cases quickly and determine the risk of infection. From the perspective of the government, this work proposes a multi-snapshot multi-stage minority K-means (3M K-means) algorithm. This algorithm reduces the amount of data and considerably improves the speed of clustering by quickly ignoring the excluded risk classes and points in the process in the early stages, whereas traditional algorithms involve with O(N2) computational complexity which needs several days, impracticably for the COVID-19 urgent situations. The 3M algorithm greatly cuts down the computational time, thereof making the rapid warning of close contacts practicable. The methods are simple, yet efficient and practicable for the COVID-19 urgent situations The use of this algorithm can help control the COVID-19 epidemic, achieve significant cost savings, and provide the psychological guarantee of people for work resumption.

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