Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Expert Systems with Applications ; : 117605, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867135

ABSTRACT

In synonym replacement-based data augmentation techniques for natural language processing tasks, words in a sentence are often sampled randomly with equal probability. In this paper, we propose a novel data augmentation technique named Tailored Text Argumentation (TTA) for sentiment analysis. It has two main operations. The first operation is the probabilistic word sampling for synonym replacement based on the discriminative power and relevance of the word to sentiment. The second operation is the identification of words irrelevant to sentiment but discriminative for the training data, and application of zero masking or contextual replacement to these words. The first operation expands the coverage of discriminative words, while the second operation alleviates the problem of misfitting. Both operations tend to improve the model’s generalization capability. Extensive experiments on simulated low-data regimes demonstrate that TTA yields notable improvements over six strong baselines. Finally, TTA is applied to public sentiment analysis on measures against Covid-19, which again proves the effectiveness of the new data augmentation algorithm.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 630-638, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of COVID-19 epidemiology remains incomplete and crucial questions persist. We aimed to examine risk factors for COVID-19 death. METHODS: A total of 80 543 COVID-19 cases reported in China, nationwide, through 8 April 2020 were included. Risk factors for death were investigated by Cox proportional hazards regression and stratified analyses. RESULTS: Overall national case-fatality ratio (CFR) was 5.64%. Risk factors for death were older age (≥80: adjusted hazard ratio, 12.58; 95% confidence interval, 6.78-23.33), presence of underlying disease (1.33; 1.19-1.49), worse case severity (severe: 3.86; 3.15-4.73; critical: 11.34; 9.22-13.95), and near-epicenter region (Hubei: 2.64; 2.11-3.30; Wuhan: 6.35; 5.04-8.00). CFR increased from 0.35% (30-39 years) to 18.21% (≥70 years) without underlying disease. Regardless of age, CFR increased from 2.50% for no underlying disease to 7.72% for 1, 13.99% for 2, and 21.99% for ≥3 underlying diseases. CFR increased with worse case severity from 2.80% (mild) to 12.51% (severe) and 48.60% (critical), regardless of region. Compared with other regions, CFR was much higher in Wuhan regardless of case severity (mild: 3.83% vs 0.14% in Hubei and 0.03% elsewhere; moderate: 4.60% vs 0.21% and 0.06%; severe: 15.92% vs 5.84% and 1.86%; and critical: 58.57% vs 49.80% and 18.39%). CONCLUSIONS: Older patients regardless of underlying disease and patients with underlying disease regardless of age were at elevated risk of death. Higher death rates near the outbreak epicenter and during the surge of cases reflect the deleterious effects of allowing health systems to become overwhelmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(2): 103-107, 2022 Feb 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1600048

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the influenza viruses. Older people, infants and people with underlying medical conditions could have a higher risk of severe influenza symptoms and complications. The co-infection of Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) with influenza viruses could lead to the complication of prevention, diagnosis, control, treatment, and recovery of COVID-19. Influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine overlapped in target populations, vaccination time, and inoculation units. Although there was insufficient evidence on the immunogenicity and safety of co-administration of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine, World Health Organization and some countries recommended co-administration of inactivated influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine. This review summarized domestic and international vaccination policies and research progress, and put forward corresponding suggestions in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of vaccination strategy on seasonal influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
5.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(6):573-580, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395019

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the early clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in different age groups, and provide references for the early identification, treatment and management of COVID-19 cases, prevention of the progression of illness and further effective prevention and control of COVID-19.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2288-2293, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369628

ABSTRACT

We estimated the symptomatic, PCR-confirmed secondary attack rate (SAR) for 2,382 close contacts of 476 symptomatic persons with coronavirus disease in Yichang, Hubei Province, China, identified during January 23-February 25, 2020. The SAR among all close contacts was 6.5%; among close contacts who lived with an index case-patient, the SAR was 10.8%; among close-contact spouses of index case-patients, the SAR was 15.9%. The SAR varied by close contact age, from 3.0% for those <18 years of age to 12.5% for those >60 years of age. Multilevel logistic regression showed that factors significantly associated with increased SAR were living together, being a spouse, and being >60 years of age. Multilevel regression did not support SAR differing significantly by whether the most recent contact occurred before or after the index case-patient's onset of illness (p = 0.66). The relatively high SAR for coronavirus disease suggests relatively high virus transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models
8.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3249, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249208

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in China during the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza epidemic. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and behavioral changes to mitigate COVID-19 could have affected transmission dynamics of influenza and other respiratory diseases. By comparing 2019-2020 seasonal influenza activity through March 29, 2020 with the 2011-2019 seasons, we found that COVID-19 outbreaks and related NPIs may have reduced influenza in Southern and Northern China and the United States by 79.2% (lower and upper bounds: 48.8%-87.2%), 79.4% (44.9%-87.4%) and 67.2% (11.5%-80.5%). Decreases in influenza virus infection were also associated with the timing of NPIs. Without COVID-19 NPIs, influenza activity in China and the United States would likely have remained high during the 2019-2020 season. Our findings provide evidence that NPIs can partially mitigate seasonal and, potentially, pandemic influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 630-638, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of COVID-19 epidemiology remains incomplete and crucial questions persist. We aimed to examine risk factors for COVID-19 death. METHODS: A total of 80 543 COVID-19 cases reported in China, nationwide, through 8 April 2020 were included. Risk factors for death were investigated by Cox proportional hazards regression and stratified analyses. RESULTS: Overall national case-fatality ratio (CFR) was 5.64%. Risk factors for death were older age (≥80: adjusted hazard ratio, 12.58; 95% confidence interval, 6.78-23.33), presence of underlying disease (1.33; 1.19-1.49), worse case severity (severe: 3.86; 3.15-4.73; critical: 11.34; 9.22-13.95), and near-epicenter region (Hubei: 2.64; 2.11-3.30; Wuhan: 6.35; 5.04-8.00). CFR increased from 0.35% (30-39 years) to 18.21% (≥70 years) without underlying disease. Regardless of age, CFR increased from 2.50% for no underlying disease to 7.72% for 1, 13.99% for 2, and 21.99% for ≥3 underlying diseases. CFR increased with worse case severity from 2.80% (mild) to 12.51% (severe) and 48.60% (critical), regardless of region. Compared with other regions, CFR was much higher in Wuhan regardless of case severity (mild: 3.83% vs 0.14% in Hubei and 0.03% elsewhere; moderate: 4.60% vs 0.21% and 0.06%; severe: 15.92% vs 5.84% and 1.86%; and critical: 58.57% vs 49.80% and 18.39%). CONCLUSIONS: Older patients regardless of underlying disease and patients with underlying disease regardless of age were at elevated risk of death. Higher death rates near the outbreak epicenter and during the surge of cases reflect the deleterious effects of allowing health systems to become overwhelmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(21): 441-447, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237076

ABSTRACT

What is known about this topic? Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China.. What is added by this report? In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact. What are the implications for public health practice? Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 48, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed an enormous threat to public health around the world. Some severe and critical cases have bad prognoses and high case fatality rates, unraveling risk factors for severe COVID-19 are of significance for predicting and preventing illness progression, and reducing case fatality rates. Our study focused on analyzing characteristics of COVID-19 cases and exploring risk factors for developing severe COVID-19. METHODS: The data for this study was disease surveillance data on symptomatic cases of COVID-19 reported from 30 provinces in China between January 19 and March 9, 2020, which included demographics, dates of symptom onset, clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, laboratory findings, radiographic findings, underlying disease history, and exposure history. We grouped mild and moderate cases together as non-severe cases and categorized severe and critical cases together as severe cases. We compared characteristics of severe cases and non-severe cases of COVID-19 and explored risk factors for severity. RESULTS: The total number of cases were 12 647 with age from less than 1 year old to 99 years old. The severe cases were 1662 (13.1%), the median age of severe cases was 57 years [Inter-quartile range(IQR): 46-68] and the median age of non-severe cases was 43 years (IQR: 32-54). The risk factors for severe COVID-19 were being male [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5]; fever (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 2.0-2.7), cough (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), fatigue (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), and chronic kidney disease (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.6), hypertension (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) and diabetes (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.6-2.4). With the increase of age, risk for the severity was gradually higher [20-39 years (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.4), 40-59 years (aOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 3.6-16.3), ≥ 60 years (aOR = 20.4, 95% CI: 9.5-43.7)], and longer time from symtem onset to diagnosis [3-5 days (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7), 6-8 days (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5-2.1), ≥ 9 days(aOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.6-2.3)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed the risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 with large sample size, which included being male, older age, fever, cough, fatigue, delayed diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney diasease, early case identification and prompt medical care. Based on these factors, the severity of COVID-19 cases can be predicted. So cases with these risk factors should be paid more attention to prevent severity.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146040, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117650

ABSTRACT

From June 11, 2020, a surge in new cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, the Xinfadi Market, leading to a second wave of COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Understanding the transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the personal behaviors and environmental factors contributing to viral transmission is of utmost important to curb COVID-19 rise. However, currently these are largely unknown in food markets. To this end, we completed field investigations and on-site simulations in areas with relatively high infection rates of COVID-19 at Xinfadi Market. We found that if goods were tainted or personnel in market was infected, normal transaction behaviors between sellers and customers, daily physiological activities, and marketing activities could lead to viral contamination and spread to the surroundings via fomite, droplet or aerosol routes. Environmental factors such as low temperature and high humidity, poor ventilation, and insufficient hygiene facilities and disinfection practices may contribute to viral transmission in Xinfadi Market. In addition, precautionary control strategies were also proposed to effectively reduce the clustering cases of COVID-19 in large-scale wholesale markets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors
18.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 8: 100094, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China implemented containment measures to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. After the first epidemic wave, we conducted population-based serological surveys to determine extent of infection, risk factors for infection, and neutralization antibody levels to assess the real infections in the random sampled population. METHODS: We used a multistage, stratified cluster random sampling strategy to conduct serological surveys in three areas - Wuhan, Hubei Province outside Wuhan, and six provinces selected on COVID-19 incidence and containment strategy. Participants were consenting individuals >1 year old who resided in the survey area >14 days during the epidemic. Provinces screened sera for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, and total antibody by two lateral flow immunoassays and one magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay; positive samples were verified by micro-neutralization assay. FINDINGS: We enrolled 34,857 participants (overall response rate, 92%); 427 were positive by micro-neutralization assay. Wuhan had the highest weighted seroprevalence (4•43%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=3•48%-5•62%), followed by Hubei-ex-Wuhan (0•44%, 95%CI=0•26%-0•76%), and the other provinces (<0•1%). Living in Wuhan (adjusted odds ratio aOR=13•70, 95%CI= 7•91-23•75), contact with COVID-19 patients (aOR=7•35, 95%CI=5•05-10•69), and age over 40 (aOR=1•36, 95%CI=1•07-1•72) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among seropositives, 101 (24%) reported symptoms and had higher geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers than among the 326 (76%) without symptoms (30±2•4 vs 15±2•1, p<0•001). INTERPRETATION: The low overall extent of infection and steep gradient of seropositivity from Wuhan to the outer provinces provide evidence supporting the success of containment of the first wave of COVID-19 in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of active case finding and physical distancing. Virtually the entire population of China remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; vaccination will be needed for long-term protection. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC0846900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041026, 82041027, 82041028, 82041029, 82041030, 82041032, 82041033).

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 332-339, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050129

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of novel coronavirus disease was first reported in China in late December 2019 and was brought under control after some 2 months in China. However, it has become a global pandemic, and the number of cases and deaths continues to increase outside of China. We describe the emergence of the pandemic, detail the first 100 days of China's response as a phase 1 containment strategy followed by phase 2 containment, and briefly highlight areas of focus for the future. Specific, simple, and pragmatic strategies used in China for risk assessment, prioritization, and deployment of resources are described. Details of implementation, at different risk levels, of the traditional public health interventions are shared. Involvement of society in mounting a whole country response and challenges experienced with logistics and supply chains are described. Finally, the methods China is employing to cautiously restart social life and economic activity are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL