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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277779, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a potentially lethal disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing public health issues around the world. In resource-constrained nations, rapid Abbott SARS-CoV-2 antigen test kits are critical for addressing diagnostic gaps in health institutions and community screening. However, there is no evidence or proof of diagnostic performance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of PanbioTM Abbott SARS-CoV-2antigen rapid test kit to the gold standard, RT-PCR, in COVID-19 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. METHOD: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022, on 120 suspected patients recruited from outpatient, emergency, and intensive care units in one of the tertiary hospitals in Ethiopia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from suspected cases and were tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 kit, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and compared to the reference standard RT-PCR. RESULT: The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 74.2% and 100%, respectively. A total of 62 samples (51.6%) were RT-PCR positive. Of these, 46 were Ag-RDT positive. Sensitivity among symptomatic patients was 79.4% (95% CI 68.3-90). The Abbot RDT and RT-PCR had a Kappa value of agreement of 0.735 (p < 0.001). These values were acceptable when compared to the WHO's suggested thresholds. CONCLUSION: The finding from this study support the use of the Abbot RDT as a diagnostic tool in COVID-19 suspects, mainly in those with higher viral loads.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869865

ABSTRACT

Single-dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose for those individuals in countries with limited vaccine supply. However, these important data are limited to developed nations. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study among Ethiopian healthcare workers who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We compared the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 39 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 24 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P.I.), who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across the two post-vaccination time points (at 8 to 12 weeks post single dose and two dose vaccinations). We noted that the GMT (1632.16) in naïve participants at 8-12 weeks post first dose were comparable to the GMT (1674.94) observed in P.I. participants prior to vaccination. Interestingly, P.I. participants had significantly higher antibody titers compared to naïve participants, after both the first (GMT, 4913.50 vs. 1632.16) and second doses (GMT, 9804.60 vs. 6607.30). Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar, if not higher, antibody responses to those of two-dose-vaccinated naïve individuals.

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