Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788902

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that pets play a critical role in the maintenance of methicillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus spp. in the household. We examined risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci, with particular attention to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from pets living in households of people diagnosed with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) skin or soft-tissue infection. We analyzed data collected cross-sectionally from a study conducted in 2012 that evaluated the transmission of MRSA and other staphylococci from humans, their pets and the environment (Pets and Environmental Transmission of Staphylococci [PETS] study). We used unadjusted and adjusted stratified logistic regression analyses with household-clustered standard errors to evaluate the association between demographic, healthcare-related, contact-related and environmental risk factors and MDR Staphylococcus spp. isolated from dogs and cats. Staphylococcal isolates obtained from dogs (n = 63) and cats (n = 47) were included in these analyses. The use of oral or injectable antimicrobials by the pets during the prior year was the main risk factor of interest. Based on our results, 50% (12/24) of S. aureus, 3.3% (1/30) of S. pseudintermedius and 25% (14/56) of other coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were determined to be MDR. S. aureus isolates were more likely to be MDR compared with S. pseudintermedius. We did not find a significant statistical association between the use of oral or injectable antimicrobials in the prior year and the presence of MDR bacteria. The results suggest that drivers of antimicrobial resistance in household staphylococci may vary by bacterial species, which could have implications for one health intervention strategies for staphylococci and inform the investigation of other reverse zoonoses, such as COVID-19.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 273, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612208

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has disproportionally impacted racial and ethnic minority communities in the United States. Patterns of these disparities may be changing over time as outbreaks occur in different communities. Utilizing electronic health record data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), we estimated odds ratios, stratified by time period and region, for testing positive among 1,313,402 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 between February 12, 2020 and August 16, 2021 at VA medical facilities. We adjusted for personal characteristics (sex, age, rural/urban residence, VA facility) and a wide range of clinical characteristics that have been evaluated in prior SARS-CoV-2 reports and could potentially explain racial/ethnic disparities in SARS-CoV-2. Our study found racial and ethnic disparities for testing positive were most pronounced at the beginning of the pandemic and decreased over time. A key finding was that the disparity among Hispanic individuals attenuated but remained elevated, while disparities among Asian individuals reversed by March 1, 2021. The variation in racial and ethnic disparities in SARS-CoV-2 positivity by time and region, independent of underlying health status and other demographic characteristics in a nationwide cohort, provides important insight for strategies to prevent further outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Urban Population , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572470

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disparities by area-level social determinants of health (SDH) have been a significant public health concern and may also be impacting U.S. Veterans. This retrospective analysis was designed to inform optimal care and prevention strategies at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and utilized COVID-19 data from the VAs EHR and geographically linked county-level data from 18 area-based socioeconomic measures. The risk of testing positive with Veterans' county-level SDHs, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and facility characteristics, was calculated using generalized linear models. We found an exposure-response relationship whereby individual COVID-19 infection risk increased with each increasing quartile of adverse county-level SDH, such as the percentage of residents in a county without a college degree, eligible for Medicaid, and living in crowded housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003807, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined whether key sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality changed over time in a population-based cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 9,127,673 persons enrolled in the United States Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we evaluated the independent associations of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 216,046), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality (n = 10,230), and case fatality at monthly intervals between February 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021. VA enrollees had a mean age of 61 years (SD 17.7) and were predominantly male (90.9%) and White (64.5%), with 14.6% of Black race and 6.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Black (versus White) race was strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.10, [95% CI 4.65 to 5.59], p-value <0.001), mortality (AOR 3.85 [95% CI 3.30 to 4.50], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.56, 95% CI 2.23 to 2.93, p-value < 0.001) in February to March 2020, but these associations were attenuated and not statistically significant by November 2020 for infection (AOR 1.03 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.07] p-value = 0.05) and mortality (AOR 1.08 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.20], p-value = 0.21) and were reversed for case fatality (AOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.95, p-value = 0.005). American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN versus White) race was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in April and May 2020; this association declined over time and reversed by March 2021 (AOR 0.66 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.85] p-value = 0.004). Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic) ethnicity was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during almost every time period, with no evidence of attenuation over time. Urban (versus rural) residence was associated with higher risk of infection (AOR 2.02, [95% CI 1.83 to 2.22], p-value < 0.001), mortality (AOR 2.48 [95% CI 2.08 to 2.96], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.93 to 2.60, p-value < 0.001) in February to April 2020, but these associations attenuated over time and reversed by September 2020 (AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p-value < 0.001 for infection, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83, p-value < 0.001 for mortality and AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93, p-value = 0.006 for case fatality). Throughout the observation period, high comorbidity burden, younger age, and obesity were consistently associated with infection, while high comorbidity burden, older age, and male sex were consistently associated with mortality. Limitations of the study include that changes over time in the associations of some risk factors may be affected by changes in the likelihood of testing for SARS-CoV-2 according to those risk factors; also, study results apply directly to VA enrollees who are predominantly male and have comprehensive healthcare and need to be confirmed in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that strongly positive associations of Black and AI/AN (versus White) race and urban (versus rural) residence with SARS-CoV-2 infection, mortality, and case fatality observed early in the pandemic were ameliorated or reversed by March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Population Surveillance , Rural Population/trends , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/trends , Urban Population/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(11): 580-587, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic abruptly disrupted cancer care. The impact of these disruptions on patient experiences remain relatively understudied. The objective of this study was to assess patients' perspectives regarding the impact of COVID-19 on their experiences, including their cancer care, emotional and mental health, and social determinants of health, and to evaluate whether these outcomes differed by cancer stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a survey among adults with cancer across the United States from April 1, 2020 to August 26, 2020 using virtual snowball sampling strategy in collaboration with professional organizations, cancer care providers, and patient advocacy groups. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics, χ2 and t tests. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve people with cancer participated and represented 38 states. The majority were non-Hispanic White (n=183; 58.7%) and female (n=177; 56.7%) with median age of 57 years. Ninety-one percent spoke English at home, 70.1% had health insurance, and 67% had access to home internet. Breast cancer was the most common diagnosis (n=67; 21.5%). Most had Stage 4 disease (n=80; 25.6%). Forty-six percent (n=145) experienced a change in their care due to COVID-19. Sixty percent (n=187) reported feeling very or extremely concerned that the pandemic would affect their cancer and disproportionately experienced among those with advanced cancer stages compared with earlier stages (P<0.001). Fifty-two percent (n=162) reported impact of COVID-19 on 1 or more aspects of social determinants of health with disproportionate impact among those with advanced cancer stages compared with earlier stages. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 impacted the care and well-being of patients with cancer and this impact was more pronounced among people with advanced cancer stages. Future work should consider tailored interventions to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
6.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(2): 199-211, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196969

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify organizational and external factors associated with medical center video telehealth uptake (i.e., the proportion of patients using telemedicine) before and early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study using cross-sectional data for all 139 U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). We used logistic regression analyses to identify factors that predicted whether a VAMC was in the top quartile of VA Video Connect (VVC) telehealth uptake for primary care and mental health care. Results: All 139 VAMCs increased their VVC uptake at least 2-fold early in the pandemic, with most increasing uptake between 5- and 10-fold. Pre-COVID-19, higher VVC uptake in primary care was weakly and positively associated with having more high-risk patients, negatively associated with having more long-distance patients, and positively associated with the prior fiscal year's VVC uptake. During COVID-19, the positive association with high-risk patients and the negative association with long-distance patients strengthened, while weaker broadband coverage was negatively associated with VVC uptake. For mental health care, having more long-distance patients was positively associated with higher VVC uptake pre-COVID-19, but this relationship reversed during COVID-19. Discussion: Despite the marked increase in VVC uptake early in the COVID-19 pandemic, significant VAMC-level variation indicates that VVC adoption was more difficult for some medical centers, particularly those with poorer broadband coverage and less prior VVC experience. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight opportunities for medical centers, VA Central Office, and other federal entities to ensure equitable access to video telehealth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Veterans Health
7.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 483-492, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. We evaluated characteristics associated with obtaining a COVID-19 test from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and receiving a positive test result for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 6 292 800 veterans in VHA care at 130 VHA medical facilities. We assessed the number of tests for SARS-CoV-2 administered by the VHA (n = 822 934) and the number of positive test results (n = 82 094) from February 8 through December 28, 2020. We evaluated associations of COVID-19 testing and test positivity with demographic characteristics of veterans, adjusting for facility characteristics, comorbidities, and county-level area-based socioeconomic measures using nested generalized linear models. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, veterans who were female, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, urban, and low income and had a disability had an increased likelihood of obtaining a COVID-19 test, and veterans who were Asian had a decreased likelihood of obtaining a COVID-19 test. Compared with veterans who were White, veterans who were Black/African American (risk ratio [RR] = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.19-1.27) and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21) had an increased likelihood of receiving a positive test result. Hispanic/Latino veterans had a 43% higher likelihood of receiving a positive test result than non-Hispanic/Latino veterans did. CONCLUSIONS: Although veterans have access to subsidized health care at the VHA, the increased risk of receiving a positive test result for COVID-19 among Black and Hispanic/Latino veterans, despite receiving more tests than White and non-Hispanic/Latino veterans, suggests that other factors (eg, social inequities) are driving disparities in COVID-19 prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Veterans , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(3): 453-462, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the shift from in-person to virtual care within Veterans Affairs (VA) during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify at-risk patient populations who require greater resources to overcome access barriers to virtual care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outpatient encounters (N = 42 916 349) were categorized by care type (eg, primary, mental health, etc) and delivery method (eg, in-person, video). For 5 400 878 Veterans, we used generalized linear models to identify patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with: 1) use of virtual (phone or video) care versus no virtual care and 2) use of video care versus no video care between March 11, 2020 and June 6, 2020. RESULTS: By June, 58% of VA care was provided virtually compared to only 14% prior. Patients with lower income, higher disability, and more chronic conditions were more likely to receive virtual care during the pandemic. Yet, Veterans aged 45-64 and 65+ were less likely to use video care compared to those aged 18-44 (aRR 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 0.82] and 0.50 [95% CI 0.48, 0.52], respectively). Rural and homeless Veterans were 12% and 11% less likely to use video care compared to urban (0.88 [95% CI 0.86, 0.90]) and nonhomeless Veterans (0.89 [95% CI 0.86, 0.92]). DISCUSSION: Veterans with high clinical or social need had higher likelihood of virtual service use early in the COVID-19 pandemic; however, older, homeless, and rural Veterans were less likely to have video visits, raising concerns for access barriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: While virtual care may expand access, access barriers must be addressed to avoid exacerbating disparities.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/trends , COVID-19 , Telemedicine/trends , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , United States , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL