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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Respiration ; 101(4): 381-393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported a double-step follow-up of patients after hospitalization for COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: We designed an observational double-step follow-up study with a clinical, functional, and radiological evaluation at 2 and 6 months after COVID-19. The primary outcome was to describe symptoms, spirometry, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) at 2 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes were to identify if the lowest PaO2/FiO2 during hospitalization is related with functional and radiological evolution and to assess the correlation between radiological and functional abnormalities at 6 months. METHODS: Symptoms, spirometry, and 6MWT were assessed at 2 and 6 months; arterial blood gas, chest x-ray, and lung ultrasound were performed at 2 months; body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and CT scan were performed at 6 months. RESULTS: Sixty-four per cent and 42% of patients reported at least one symptom at 2 and 6 months, respectively. The most common 6-month functional alteration was DLCO impairment (57% of patients). An improvement of FEV1, FVC, and 6MWT was observed between 2 and 6 months (p < 0.001). Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <200 during hospitalization performed worse at 6MWT at 2 and 6 months (p < 0.05) and reported more extended radiological abnormalities at 6 months (p < 0.001) compared with patients with PaO2/FiO2>200. At 6 months, more extended radiological abnormalities were related with worse 6MWT, DLCO, and total lung capacity (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: DLCO and 6MWT impairment seem to be the functional hallmark of COVID-19 and are related with the severity of acute pneumonia. At 6 months, radiological abnormalities were related to functional impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3323-3330, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In our department, we provided guidelines to the radiation oncologists (ROs) regarding the omission, delay, or shortening of radiotherapy (RT). The purpose was to reduce the patients' exposure to the hospital environment and to minimize the departmental overcrowding. The aim was to evaluate the ROs' compliance to these guidelines. METHODS: ROs were asked to fill out a data collection form during patients' first visits in May and June 2020. The collected data included the ROs' age and gender, patient age and residence, RT purpose, treated tumor, the dose and fractionation that would have been prescribed, and RT changes. The chi-square test and binomial logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between the treatment prescription and the collected parameters. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six out of 205 prescribed treatments were included in this analysis. Treatment was modified in 61.1% of cases. More specifically, the treatment was omitted, delayed, or shortened in 7.9, 15.9, and 37.3% of patients, respectively. The number of delivered fractions was reduced by 27.9%. A statistically significant correlation (p = 0.028) between younger patients' age and lower treatment modifications rate was recorded. CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed a reasonably high compliance of ROs to the pandemic-adapted guidelines. The adopted strategy was effective in reducing the number of admissions to our department.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiation Oncology , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-37723

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has recently defined the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection a pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the correct use of "respiratory devices" in the COVID-19 emergency and protect healthcare workers from contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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