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1.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1816252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause clinical manifestations that last for weeks or months after hospital discharge. The manifestations are heterogeneous and vary in their frequency. Their multisystem nature requires a holistic approach to management. There are sparse data from the South Asian region on the outcomes of hospital-discharged COVID-19 patients. We assessed the posthospital discharge outcomes of a cohort of Sri Lankan COVID-19 patients and explored the factors that influenced these outcomes. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from patients who were discharged following an admission to the Nawaloka Hospital, Sri Lanka with COVID-19 from March to June 2021. At discharge, their demographic, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. The patients were categorised as having mild, moderate and severe COVID-19, based on the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health COVID-19 guidelines. Following discharge, information on health status, complications and outcomes was collected through clinic visits and preplanned telephone interviews. A validated (in Sri Lanka) version of the Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess multi-item dimensions health status of the patients at 1, 2 and 3 mo postdischarge. RESULTS: We collected data on 203 patients (male, n=111 [54.7%]). The level of vaccination was significantly associated with disease severity (p<0.001). Early recovery was seen in the mild group compared with the moderate and severe groups. At 3 mo, on average 98% of mild and 90% of moderate/severe patients had recovered. Based on the SF-36, physical functioning dimensions, role limitation due to physical and emotional health, energy/ fatigue, emotional well-being, social functioning, pain and general health were significantly different in the moderate/severe vs mild COVID-19 groups at 1, 2 and 3 mo postdischarge (p<0.05). Twenty-three patients developed complications, of which the most common were myocardial infarction with heart failure (n=6/23;26.1%), cerebrovascular accident (n=6/23;26.1%) and respiratory tract infections (n=3/23;13.01%) and there were six deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, receiving two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with reduced disease severity. Those with mild disease recovered faster than those with moderate/severe disease. At 3 mo posthospital discharge, >90% had recovered.

2.
Neuroepidemiology ; 56(SUPPL 1):69, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812949

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2(SARS-Cov2) is well known to cause a multitude of neurologic conditions out of which remains the rather rare condition of Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy. It's a devastating condition with early immunotherapy bringing a more favorable outcome. Pathophysiology suggests the dysregulation of the blood brain barrier secondary to the cytokine storm. Pituitary apoplexy is an unrelated acute condition in which there is either hemorrhagic or non- hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland. It again has multiple predisposing factors including changes in intracranial pressure and underlying coagulation disorders. Case Presentation: A thirty-five-year-old male patient with poorly controlled diabetes presented to our emergency department with fever, cough and progressive respiratory distress for three days. He was drowsy with clinical features of bronchopneumonia and his COVID PCR was positive (He had taken only the first dose of Sinopharm nearly a month before). Within twenty-four hours, he was sent to the ICU for ventilatory support mainly due to low GCS. His HRCT Chest revealed severe COVID pneumonia. MRI brain revealed high signal intensities involving cerebellum, brainstem, bilateral thalami and mesial temporal lobes compatible with acute necrotizing encephalopathy with a pituitary macroadenoma and bleeding into it. He received high dose steroids followed by plasma exchange leading to resolution of the above changes within a month but passed away at the end of six weeks due to secondary bacterial sepsis. Discussion: Here the pituitary macroadema was an incidental finding and the bleeding was postulated to be secondary to changes in intra cranial pressure. Both the Necrotizing encephalopathy and the pituitary apoplexy might have resulted in the reduced conscious level in the above patient in the background of severe COVID pneumonia. The immunotherapy was successful in resolution of the radiologic changes though the patient deteriorated clinically following a transient improvement due to bacterial sepsis.

4.
Platelets ; 33(2): 200-207, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788406

ABSTRACT

Evolving evidence demonstrates that platelets have major roles in viral syndromes through previously unrecognized viral sensing and effector functions. Activated platelets and increased platelet-leukocyte aggregates are observed in clinical and experimental viral infections. The mechanisms and outcomes of platelet-leukocyte interactions depend on the interacting leukocyte as well as on the pathogen and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in platelet interactions with leukocytes and its functions during viral infections. We focus on the contributions of human platelet-leukocyte interactions to pathophysiological and protective responses during viral infections of major global health relevance, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), influenza pneumonia, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Virus Diseases/blood , Humans
5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22273558

ABSTRACT

Passive immunotherapy has been evaluated as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 disease. Equine polyclonal immunotherapy for COVID-19 (EPIC) showed adequate safety and potential efficacy in a clinical trial setting and obtained emergency use authorization in Argentina. We studied its utility in a real world setting with a larger population. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study at "Hospital de Campana Escuela-Hogar" in Corrientes, Argentina, to assess safety and effectiveness of EPIC in hospitalized adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Primary endpoints were 28-days all-cause mortality and safety. Mortality and improvement in modified WHO clinical scale at 14 and 21 days were secondary endpoints. Potential confounder adjustment was made by logistic regression weighted by the inverse of the probability of receiving the treatment (IPTW) and doubly robust approach. ResultsClinical records of 395 exposed (EPIC) and 446 non-exposed (Controls) patients admitted between November 2020 and April 2021 were analyzed. Median age was 58 years and 56.8% were males. Mortality at 28 days was 15.7% (EPIC) vs. 21.5% (Control). After IPTW adjustment the OR was 0.66 (95 % CI: 0.46 - 0.96), P= 0.03. The effect was more evident in the subgroup who received two EPIC doses (complete treatment, n=379), OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.85), P=0.005. Overall and serious adverse events were not significantly different between groups. ImportanceIn this retrospective cohort study, EPIC showed adequate safety and effectiveness in the treatment of hospitalized patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.

9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756612

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 may elicit uncontrolled and damaging inflammatory responses. Thus, it is critical to identify compounds able to inhibit virus replication and thwart the inflammatory reaction. Here, we show that the plasma levels of the immunoregulatory neuropeptide VIP are elevated in patients with severe COVID-19, correlating with reduced inflammatory mediators and with survival on those patients. In vitro, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), highly similar neuropeptides, decreased the SARS-CoV-2 RNA content in human monocytes and viral production in lung epithelial cells, also reducing cell death. Both neuropeptides inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators in lung epithelial cells and in monocytes. VIP and PACAP prevented in monocytes the SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of NF-kB and SREBP1 and SREBP2, transcriptions factors involved in proinflammatory reactions and lipid metabolism, respectively. They also promoted CREB activation, a transcription factor with antiapoptotic activity and negative regulator of NF-kB. Specific inhibition of NF-kB and SREBP1/2 reproduced the anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cell death protection effects of VIP and PACAP. Our results support further clinical investigations of these neuropeptides against COVID-19.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 820131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731776

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a worldwide emergency caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In observational clinical studies, statins have been identified as beneficial to hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, experimental evidence of underlying statins protection against SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here we reported for the first-time experimental evidence of the protective effects of simvastatin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. We found that treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced the viral replication and lung damage in vivo, delaying SARS-CoV-2-associated physiopathology and mortality in the K18-hACE2-transgenic mice model. Moreover, simvastatin also downregulated the inflammation triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pulmonary tissue and in human neutrophils, peripheral blood monocytes, and lung epithelial Calu-3 cells in vitro, showing its potential to modulate the inflammatory response both at the site of infection and systemically. Additionally, we also observed that simvastatin affected the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection through displacing ACE2 on cell membrane lipid rafts. In conclusion, our results show that simvastatin exhibits early protective effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting virus cell entry and inflammatory cytokine production, through mechanisms at least in part dependent on lipid rafts disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Membrane Microdomains/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 27: 100348, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719554

ABSTRACT

Amid the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19), the scientific community has a responsibility to provide accessible public health resources within their communities. Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) has been used to monitor community spread of the pandemic. The goal of this review was to evaluate the need for an environmental justice approach for COVID-19 WBE starting with the state of California in the United States. Methods included a review of the peer-reviewed literature, government-provided data, and news stories. As of June 2021, there were twelve universities, nine public dashboards, and 48 of 384 wastewater treatment plants monitoring wastewater for SARS-CoV-2 within California. The majority of wastewater monitoring in California has been conducted in the urban areas of Coastal and Southern California (34/48), with a lack of monitoring in more rural areas of Central (10/48) and Northern California (4/48). Similar to the access to COVID-19 clinical testing and vaccinations, there is a disparity in access to wastewater testing which can often provide an early warning system to outbreaks. This research demonstrates the need for an environmental justice approach and equity considerations when determining locations for environmental monitoring.

13.
International Journal of Wine Business Research ; 34(1):69-85, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1672514

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore the continuous identification of tangible and intangible strategic resources needed to achieve competitive advantages in uncertain times in Spanish wineries, highlighting the critical value of human capital.Design/methodology/approachBy means of a case study of a Spanish Sherry winery theoretically based on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, the paper focuses on the influence of environmental uncertainty on firms’ strategic resources and the need for in-depth knowledge. Direct participation and experience in the business have allowed access to data for longitudinal exploratory analysis.FindingsHuman capital, especially managers’ knowledge and experience, has been the key to the survival and success of the company analysed, throughout its history.Practical implicationsThe paper guides managers, especially in microenterprises and SMEs, on the inclusion among the firm’s strategic resources of a part of their own human capital that is generally not considered.Originality/valueThis paper contributes to the RBV and self-reflection theory by demonstrating the value of human capital in a small family business under extremely uncertain times.

14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate vaccine effectiveness after the first and second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against symptomatic COVID-19 and infection in a socially vulnerable community in Brazil when Gamma and Delta were the predominant variants circulating. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative study in the community Complexo da Maré, the largest group of slums (n = 16) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January 17, 2021 to November 27, 2021. We selected RT-qPCR positive and negative tests from a broad community testing program. The primary outcome was symptomatic COVID-19 (positive RT-qPCR test with at least one symptom) and the secondary outcome was infection (any positive RT-qPCR test). Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 1 - OR, which was obtained from adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: We included 10 077 RT-qPCR tests (6,394, 64% from symptomatic and 3,683, 36% from asymptomatic individuals). The mean age was 40 (SD: 14) years, and the median time between vaccination and RT-qPCR testing among vaccinated was 41 (25-75 percentile: 21-62) days for the first dose and 36 (25-75 percentile: 17-59) days for the second dose. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 was 31.6% (95% CI, 12.0-46.8) 21 days after the first dose and 65.1% (95% CI, 40.9-79.4) 14 days after the second dose. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infection was 31.0% (95% CI, 12.7-45.5) 21 days after the first dose and 59.0% (95% CI, 33.1-74.8) 14 days after the second dose. DISCUSSION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was effective in reducing symptomatic COVID-19 in a socially vulnerable community in Brazil when Gamma and Delta were the predominant variants circulating.

15.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-30, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632243

ABSTRACT

These are unprecedented times while the world weathers the highly infectious respiratory pandemic caused by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Humanity has experienced other cataclysmic events, but something as novel as this pandemic cannot be easily described. A safe COVID-19 vaccine is often hailed as the only effective public health method to prevent the further spread of this virus. New vaccines' cost has increased even as policymakers struggle with limited resources and budget constraints. Thus, more decision-support tools are needed to facilitate the selection of vaccine manufacturers as part of a global immunization strategy against COVID-19 or other epidemics and pandemics. This study sought to address this issue by combining three well-established operational research methods (i.e., cognitive mapping, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory, and the Choquet integral). Based on the insights provided by a panel of experts on vaccination and infectious diseases, a vaccine manufacturer selection mechanism was developed that incorporates the World Health Organization's guidelines. This approach facilitated the identification of multiple selection criteria regarding vaccine manufacturers, their allocation into six major clusters (i.e., soundness of scientific approach and technology used; speed of delivery; cost; liability and risk sharing; ability to supply sufficient quantities through production capacity development; and global solidarity), and subsequent analysis of the respective cause-and-effect relationships. The results of a real-life application of the proposed selection system were further consolidated by a member of Saint Francisco Xavier Hospital Infectious Diseases Unit in Lisbon, Portugal. The mechanism's advantages and limitations are also discussed.

16.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 8: 100177, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611906

ABSTRACT

Background: Indigenous peoples are vulnerable to pandemics, including to the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, since it causes high mortality and specially, the loss of elderly Indigenous individuals. Methods: The epidemiological data of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by SARS-CoV-2 infection or other etiologic agents (OEA) among Brazilian Indigenous peoples during the first year of COVID-19 pandemic was obtained from a Brazilian Ministry of Health open-access database to perform an observational study. Considering only Indigenous individuals diagnosed with SARS by COVID-19, the epidemiology data were also evaluated as risk of death. The type of sample collection for virus screening, demographic profile, clinical symptoms, comorbidities, and clinical evolution were evaluated. The primary outcome was considered the death in the Brazilian Indigenous individuals and the secondary outcome, the characteristics of Brazilian Indigenous infected by SARS-CoV-2 or OEA, as the need for intensive care unit admission or the need for mechanical ventilation support. The statistical analysis was done using Logistic Regression Model. Alpha of 0.05. Findings: A total of 3,122 cases of Indigenous individuals with SARS in Brazil were reported during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of these, 1,994 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 730/1,816 (40.2%) of them died. The death rate among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 was three-fold increased when compared to the group of individuals with OEA. Several symptoms (myalgia, loss of smell, and sore throat) and comorbidities (cardiopathy, systemic arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus) were more prevalent in the COVID-19 group when compared to Indigenous individuals with OEA. Similar profile was observed considering the risk of death among the Indigenous individuals with COVID-19 who presented several symptoms (oxygen saturation <95%, dyspnea, and respiratory distress) and comorbidities (renal disorders, cardiopathy, and diabetes mellitus). The multivariate analysis was significant in differentiating between the COVID-19-positive and non-COVID-19 patients [X2 (7)=65.187; P-value<0.001]. Among the patients' features, the following contributed in relation to the diagnosis of COVID-19: age [≥43 years-old [y.o.]; OR=1.984 (95%CI=1.480-2.658)]; loss of smell [OR=2.373 (95%CI=1.461-3.854)]; presence of previous respiratory disorders [OR=0.487; 95%CI=0.287-0.824)]; and fever [OR=1.445 (95%CI=1.082-1.929)]. Also, the multivariate analysis was able to predict the risk of death [X2 (9)=293.694; P-value<0.001]. Among the patients' features, the following contributed in relation to the risk of death: male gender [OR=1.507 (95%CI=1.010-2.250)]; age [≥60 y.o.; OR=3.377 (95%CI=2.292-4.974)]; the need for ventilatory support [invasive mechanical ventilation; OR=24.050 (95%CI=12.584-45.962) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation; OR=2.249 (95%CI=1.378-3.671)]; dyspnea [OR=2.053 (95%CI=1.196-3.522)]; oxygen saturation <95% [OR=1.691 (95%CI=1.050-2.723)]; myalgia [OR=0.423 (95%CI=0.191-0.937)]; and the presence of kidney disorders [OR=3.135 (95%CI=1.144-8.539)]. Interpretation: The Brazilian Indigenous peoples are in a vulnerable situation during the COVID-19 pandemic and presented an increased risk of death due to COVID-19. Several factors were associated with enhanced risk of death, as male sex, older age (≥60 y.o.), and need for ventilatory support; also, other factors might help to differentiate SARS by COVID-19 or by OEA, as older age (≥43 y.o.), loss of smell, and fever. Funding: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo; #2021/05810-7).

17.
J Healthc Inform Res ; 6(1): 91-111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565491

ABSTRACT

This work presents an extended and age-band compartmentalised SEIR model that allows describing the spread evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluating the effect of different detection rates, vaccination strategies or immunity periods. The model splits up the population into fifteen age groups of 5 years each, linked through a statistical interaction matrix that includes seventeen health states within each age group. An age-dependent transmission rate takes into account infectious between the groups as well the effect of interventions such as quarantines and mobility restrictions. Further, the proposal includes a nonlinear switched controller for model tuning purposes guarantying a simple and fast adjusting process. To illustrate the model potentials, the particular case of COVID-19 evolution in Argentina is analysed by simulation of three scenarios: (i) different detection levels combined with mobility restrictions, (ii) vaccination campaigns with re-opening of activities and (iii) vaccination campaigns with possible reinfections. The results exhibit how the model can aid the authorities in the decision making process.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22440, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521770

ABSTRACT

Governments have developed and implemented various policies and interventions to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now being produced and distributed globally. This study investigated the role of good governance and government effectiveness indicators in the acquisition and administration of COVID-19 vaccines at the population level. Data on six World Bank good governance indicators for 172 countries for 2019 and machine-learning methods (K-Means Method and Principal Component Analysis) were used to cluster countries based on these indicators and COVID-19 vaccination rates. XGBoost was used to classify countries based on their vaccination status and identify the relative contribution of each governance indicator to the vaccination rollout in each country. Countries with the highest COVID-19 vaccination rates (e.g., Israel, United Arab Emirates, United States) also have higher effective governance indicators. Regulatory Quality is the most important indicator in predicting COVID-19 vaccination status in a country, followed by Voice and Accountability, and Government Effectiveness. Our findings suggest that coordinated global efforts led by the World Health Organization and wealthier nations may be necessary to assist in the supply and distribution of vaccines to those countries that have less effective governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy/trends , COVID-19/immunology , Global Health/trends , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Responsibility , Vaccination , Vaccines , World Health Organization
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
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