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Front Immunol ; 14: 1126351, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260356


Background: The risks and impact of COVID19 disease and vaccination in patients with Immune Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMID) remain incompletely understood. IMID patients and particularly patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment were excluded from the original, registrational phase-3 COVID19 vaccination efficacy and safety trials. Real-world observational data can help to fill this gap in knowledge. The BELCOMID study aims to explore the interaction between IMIDs, immune-modulating treatment modalities and SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in a real-life patient cohort. Methods: A multidisciplinary, prospective, observational cohort study was set up. Consecutive patients with IMIDs of the gut, joints and skin followed at two high-volume referral centers were invited. Both patients under conventional treatment or targeted immune modulating therapies were included. Patient data and serological samples were collected at 3 predefined periods (before COVID19 vaccination, before booster vaccination, after booster vaccination). Primary endpoints were positive PCR-test and SARS-CoV-2 serology reflecting previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Associations with IMID treatment modality and IMID disease activity were assessed. Results of the first two inclusion periods (before booster vaccination) are reported. Results: At the first inclusion period data was assessed of 2165 IMID-patients before COVID19 vaccination. At the second inclusion period, data of 2065 patients was collected of whom 1547 had received complete baseline COVID19 vaccination and 222 were partially vaccinated. SARS-CoV-2 infection rate remained low in both groups. No significant increase in IMID flare-up rate was noted in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple logistic regression analyses did not show a significant influence of IMID-treatment modality or IMID activity on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk (based on PCR positivity or N-serology). Patients treated with conventional immunomodulators, systemic steroids, and patients on advanced therapies such as biologics or small molecules, had reduced S-antibody seroconversion. S-antibody response was also lower in patients without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and in active smokers. A subset of patients (4.1%) had no S- nor N-antibody seroconversion following complete baseline vaccination. Conclusion: The BELCOMID study results confirm the benign course of COVID19 infection and vaccination in a large real-life IMID-population. However, our results underscore the need for repeated vaccination and smoking cessation in patients with IMIDs treated with immune-modulating therapies or systemic steroids during the pandemic.

Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Belgium/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Immunomodulating Agents , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2015-2030, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895514


BACKGROUND: Risankizumab, an interleukin (IL)-23 p19 inhibitor, was evaluated for safety and efficacy as induction therapy in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. METHODS: ADVANCE and MOTIVATE were randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 3 induction studies. Eligible patients aged 16-80 years with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease, previously showing intolerance or inadequate response to one or more approved biologics or conventional therapy (ADVANCE) or to biologics (MOTIVATE), were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of intravenous risankizumab (600 mg or 1200 mg) or placebo (2:2:1 in ADVANCE, 1:1:1 in MOTIVATE) at weeks 0, 4, and 8. We used interactive response technology for random assignment, with stratification by number of previous failed biologics, corticosteroid use at baseline, and Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD). All patients and study personnel (excluding pharmacists who prepared intravenous solutions) were masked to treatment allocation throughout the study. Coprimary endpoints were clinical remission (defined by Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI] or patient-reported outcome criteria [average daily stool frequency and abdominal pain score]) and endoscopic response at week 12. The intention-to-treat population (all eligible patients who received at least one dose of study drug in the 12-week induction period) was analysed for efficacy outcomes. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Both trials were registered on, NCT03105128 (ADVANCE) and NCT03104413 (MOTIVATE), and are now complete. FINDINGS: Participants were enrolled between May 10, 2017, and Aug 24, 2020 (ADVANCE trial), and Dec 18, 2017 and Sept 9, 2020 (MOTIVATE trial). In ADVANCE, 931 patients were assigned to either risankizumab 600 mg (n=373), risankizumab 1200 mg (n=372), or placebo (n=186). In MOTIVATE, 618 patients were assigned to risankizumab 600 mg (n=206), risankizumab 1200 mg (n=205), or placebo (n=207). The primary analysis population comprised 850 participants in ADVANCE and 569 participants in MOTIVATE. All coprimary endpoints at week 12 were met in both trials with both doses of risankizumab (p values ≤0·0001). In ADVANCE, CDAI clinical remission rate was 45% (adjusted difference 21%, 95% CI 12-29; 152/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 42% (17%, 8-25; 141/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 25% (43/175) with placebo; stool frequency and abdominal pain score clinical remission rate was 43% (22%, 14-30; 146/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 41% (19%, 11-27; 139/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 22% (38/175) with placebo; and endoscopic response rate was 40% (28%, 21-35; 135/336) with risankizumab 600 mg and 32% (20%, 14-27; 109/339) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 12% (21/175) with placebo. In MOTIVATE, CDAI clinical remission rate was 42% (22%, 13-31; 80/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 40% (21%, 12-29; 77/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 20% (37/187) with placebo; stool frequency and abdominal pain score clinical remission rate was 35% (15%, 6-24; 66/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 40% (20%, 12-29; 76/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 19% (36/187) with placebo; and endoscopic response rate was 29% (18%, 10-25; 55/191) with risankizumab 600 mg and 34% (23%, 15-31; 65/191) with risankizumab 1200 mg versus 11% (21/187) with placebo. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar among the treatment groups in both trials. Three deaths occurred during induction (two in the placebo group [ADVANCE] and one in the risankizumab 1200 mg group [MOTIVATE]). The death in the risankizumab-treated patient was deemed unrelated to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Risankizumab was effective and well tolerated as induction therapy in patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. FUNDING: AbbVie.

Biological Products , Crohn Disease , Abdominal Pain , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(3): 485-498, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756892


BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are considered immunosuppressed, but do not seem more vulnerable for COVID-19. Nevertheless, intestinal inflammation has shown to be an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of intestinal inflammation on the viral intestinal entry mechanisms, including ACE2, in IBD. METHODS: We collected inflamed and uninflamed mucosal biopsies from Crohn's disease [CD] [n = 193] and ulcerative colitis [UC] [n = 158] patients, and from 51 matched non-IBD controls for RNA sequencing, differential gene expression, and co-expression analysis. Organoids from UC patients were subjected to an inflammatory mix and processed for RNA sequencing. Transmural ileal biopsies were processed for single-cell [sc] sequencing. Publicly available colonic sc-RNA sequencing data, and microarrays from tissue pre/post anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] therapy, were analysed. RESULTS: In inflamed CD ileum, ACE2 was significantly decreased compared with control ileum [p = 4.6E-07], whereas colonic ACE2 was higher in inflamed colon of CD/UC compared with control [p = 8.3E-03; p = 1.9E-03]. Sc-RNA sequencing confirmed this ACE2 dysregulation and exclusive epithelial ACE2 expression. Network analyses highlighted HNF4A as key regulator of ileal ACE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon regulating factors regulated colonic ACE2. Inflammatory stimuli upregulated ACE2 in UC organoids [p = 1.7E-02], but not in non-IBD controls [p = 9.1E-01]. Anti-TNF therapy restored colonic ACE2 regulation in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal inflammation alters SARS-CoV-2 coreceptors in the intestine, with opposing dysregulations in ileum and colon. HNF4A, an IBD susceptibility gene, seems an important upstream regulator of ACE2 in ileum, whereas interferon signalling might dominate in colon.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Crohn Disease , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 , Ileum , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/virology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Crohn Disease/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/genetics , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/immunology , Humans , Ileum/immunology , Ileum/pathology , Ileum/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis