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1.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 7(3): 294-308, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757448

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related myocardial injury comprise both direct viral invasion and indirect (hypercoagulability and immune-mediated) cellular injuries. Some patients with COVID-19 cardiac involvement have poor clinical outcomes, with preliminary data suggesting long-term structural and functional changes. These include persistent myocardial fibrosis, edema, and intraventricular thrombi with embolic events, while functionally, the left ventricle is enlarged, with a reduced ejection fraction and new-onset arrhythmias reported in a number of patients. Myocarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination is rare but more common among young male patients. Larger studies, including prospective data from biobanks, will be useful in expanding these early findings and determining their validity.

2.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15576, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292016

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications following the receipt of mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have not yet been described. In this case series, we describe two patients with clinically suspected myocarditis, one patient with stress cardiomyopathy, and two patients with pericarditis after receiving an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. The two patients with clinically suspected myocarditis were otherwise healthy young men who presented with acute substernal chest pressure and/or dyspnea after receiving the second dose of the vaccine and were found to have diffuse ST elevations on electrocardiogram (ECG), elevated cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory markers, and mildly reduced left ventricular (LV) function on echocardiography. Both patients met the modified Lake Louise Criteria for acute myocarditis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We subsequently discuss a case of a 60-year-old woman with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and previously normal LV function, who presented with new exertional symptoms, ECG changes, and apical akinesis following the second dose of the vaccine, and was diagnosed with a stress cardiomyopathy. Finally, we describe two patients with pericarditis who presented with chest pain, elevated inflammatory markers, and pericardial effusions after receiving the vaccine. Overall, this case series describes the first reported cases of myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, and pericarditis after receiving an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine.

3.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 35, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the application of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with heart failure (HF). RECENT FINDINGS: CMR is an important non-invasive imaging modality in the assessment of ventricular volumes and function and in the analysis of myocardial tissue characteristics. The information derived from CMR provides a comprehensive evaluation of HF. Its unique ability of tissue characterization not only helps to reveal the underlying etiologies of HF but also offers incremental prognostic information. CMR is a useful non-invasive tool for the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in patients suffering from heart failure.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Contrast Media , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2031640, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995811

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required a shift in health care delivery platforms, necessitating a new reliance on telemedicine. Objective: To evaluate whether inequities are present in telemedicine use and video visit use for telemedicine visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a retrospective medical record review was conducted from March 16 to May 11, 2020, of all patients scheduled for telemedicine visits in primary care and specialty ambulatory clinics at a large academic health system. Age, race/ethnicity, sex, language, median household income, and insurance type were all identified from the electronic medical record. Main Outcomes and Measures: A successfully completed telemedicine visit and video (vs telephone) visit for a telemedicine encounter. Multivariable models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic factors, including sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and language, and the use of telemedicine visits, as well as video use specifically. Results: A total of 148 402 unique patients (86 055 women [58.0%]; mean [SD] age, 56.5 [17.7] years) had scheduled telemedicine visits during the study period; 80 780 patients (54.4%) completed visits. Of 78 539 patients with completed visits in which visit modality was specified, 35 824 (45.6%) were conducted via video, whereas 24 025 (56.9%) had a telephone visit. In multivariable models, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.85 [95% CI, 0.83-0.88] for those aged 55-64 years; aOR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.72-0.78] for those aged 65-74 years; aOR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.64-0.70] for those aged ≥75 years), Asian race (aOR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.66-0.73]), non-English language as the patient's preferred language (aOR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]), and Medicaid insurance (aOR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.97]) were independently associated with fewer completed telemedicine visits. Older age (aOR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.76-0.82] for those aged 55-64 years; aOR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.74-0.83] for those aged 65-74 years; aOR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.46-0.53] for those aged ≥75 years), female sex (aOR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.90-0.95]), Black race (aOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.62-0.68]), Latinx ethnicity (aOR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]), and lower household income (aOR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54-0.60] for income <$50 000; aOR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.85-0.92], for $50 000-$100 000) were associated with less video use for telemedicine visits. These results were similar across medical specialties. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients scheduled for primary care and medical specialty ambulatory telemedicine visits at a large academic health system during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, older patients, Asian patients, and non-English-speaking patients had lower rates of telemedicine use, while older patients, female patients, Black, Latinx, and poorer patients had less video use. Inequities in accessing telemedicine care are present, which warrant further attention.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Videoconferencing/statistics & numerical data , Adult , African Americans , Age Factors , Aged , Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Income , Language , Male , Medicaid , Medicare , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care , Sex Factors , Tertiary Healthcare , United States
6.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 26, 2020 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125172

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is to provide general guidance and specific recommendations on the practice of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are two major considerations. First, continued urgent and semi-urgent care for the patients who have no known active COVID-19 should be provided in a safe manner for both patients and staff. Second, when necessary, CMR on patients with confirmed or suspected active COVID-19 should focus on the specific clinical question with an emphasis on myocardial function and tissue characterization while optimizing patient and staff safety.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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