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1.
International Conference on Tourism, Technology and Systems, ICOTTS 2021 ; 293:1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958924

ABSTRACT

Hotels want to provide the best service to its customers, making them feel unique, and adding value and self-fulfilment to their lives. These requirements demand high performance and efficiency. Revenue Management (RM), being mutually an art and a technique, can be a practice to help decision making enhancing profitability as well as Human Resources wellbeing in Hotels. Computer systems to support RM are critical and industry 4.0 can play an important role in a new industrial revolution era based on connection between virtual and real world. This study intends to contribute to empirical evidence about the existing Information Technology Communications in the Portuguese hotel units, which are directly related to the revenue. The study centred on the validated response of 120 hotels located in Portugal showed that RM support systems in general is an area in continuous growth and is increasingly being introduced in Portuguese hotels, which already adhere to their price management support systems. However, even if most of the units use Property Management System (97%), Channel Manager (91%) and Booking Engine (94%), in what concerns Revenue Management System most hotels (51%) do not use it. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

2.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335752

ABSTRACT

Background: The vaccines developed in 2020-2021 against the SARS-CoV-2 virus were designed to prevent severity and deaths due to COVID-19. However, estimates of the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns in achieving these goals remain a methodological challenge. In this work, we developed a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the number of deaths and hospitalisations avoided by vaccines in older adults in Brazil. Methods: We fit a linear model to predict the number of deaths and hospitalisations in older adults as a function of vaccination coverage and of casualties in younger adults. We then used this model to perform counterfactual analysis, simulating alternative scenarios without vaccination or with earlier vaccination roll-out. We estimated direct effects of COVID-19 vaccination by computing the difference between hypothetical and realised scenarios. Results: We estimated that more than 165 thousand individuals above 60 y.o. were not hospitalised due to COVID-19 in the first seven months of the vaccination campaign. An additional contingent of 100 thousand hospitalisations could have been avoided if vaccination had started earlier. We also estimated that more than 75 thousand lives were saved by vaccination in the period analysed for the same age group, and that additional 48 thousand lives could have been saved had the Brazilian Government started the vaccination programme earlier. Conclusions: Our estimates provide a lower bound for vaccination impacts in Brazil, demonstrating the importance of preventing suffering and loss of the older adults Brazilians. Once vaccines were approved, an early vaccination roll-out could have saved many more lives, especially when facing a pandemic.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S486, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746377

ABSTRACT

Background. Bloodstream infection (BSI) - Central and Non-Central Line Associated - and infections of the lower respiratory tract (RESP) - pneumonia and non pneumonia lower respiratory infections - are some of the main causes of unexpected death in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Although the leading causes of these infections are already known, risk prediction models can be used to identify unexpected cases. This study aims to investigate whether or not it is possible to build multivariate models to predict BSI and RESP events. Methods. Univariate and multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression models were built to predict BSI and RESP events. ROC curve analysis was used to validate each model. Independent variables: 29 quantitative parameters and 131 categorical variables. BSI and RESP were identified using Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency protocols with data collected between January and November 2020 from a medical-surgical ICU in a Brazilian Hospital. Definitions: if an infection is 5% or less likely to occur according to the model used and it eventually occurs, it will be classified as "unexpected", or else, if an infection is 10% or less likely to occur, it will be classified as "probably unexpected". Otherwise, infections will be classified as "expected". Patients with a 30% or more risk for BSI or RESP will be classified as "high risk". Results. A total of 1,171 patients were accessed: 70 patients with BSI (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-5%), 66 patients with RESP (95% CI, 2.9%-4.7%), 235 deaths (95% CI, 11.8%-14.9%). Of the 160 potential risk factors evaluated, logistic models for BSI and RESP identified respectively five and seven predictors (Tables 1 and 2, and Figure 1). Patients admitted to the ICU with Covid-19 had a three fold BSI risk and five times more RESP risk than patients without this diagnosis. Conclusion. The built models make possible the identification of the expected infections and the unexpected ones. Three main course of actions can be taken using these models and associated data: (1) Before the occurrence of BSI and RESP: to place high risk patients under more rigorous infection surveillance. (2) After the occurrence of BSI or RESP: to investigate "unexpected" infections. (3) At discharge: to identify high risk patients with no infections for further studies.

4.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1708410
5.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326987

ABSTRACT

The vaccines developed in 2020-2021 against the SARS-CoV-2 virus were designed to prevent severity and deaths due to COVID-19. However, how effective this vaccination campaign was at saving lives remains a methodological challenge. In this work, we developed a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the number of deaths and hospitalizations in individuals above 60 years old in Brazil. Using the actual number of hospitalized and deaths from the Brazilian database, and also the coverage of second dose according to the National Immunization Program, we rebuilt the realized scenario as well as the hypothetical scenario without vaccination in Brazil in order to perform a counterfactual analysis. By computing the difference between the hypothetical and realized scenarios, we were able to estimate the direct effect of COVID-19 vaccination in Brazil. We also evaluated two other hypothetical, but not impossible, scenarios considering earlier vaccination roll-outs. We estimated that more than 165 thousand of 60+ years old individuals were not hospitalized due to COVID-19 until August 28, 2021, and other approximately 100 thousand individuals could not have been hospitalized if the immunization started as soon it was approved in Brazil. We also estimate that more than 75 thousand lives were saved in the period analysed for the same age group, and additional 48 thousand lives could have been saved if the Brazilian Government started the immunization 8 weeks earlier.

6.
2021 International Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems, CENTERIS 2021 / ProjMAN 2021 - International Conference on Project MANagement / HCist 2021 and International Conference on Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies 2021 ; 196:724-731, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1641589

ABSTRACT

University-industry R&D collaborations (UICs) are becoming more critical for discovering innovations that can lead to the development of new products, services, and processes and, more broadly, social impact in terms of employment, economic development, and public health. The Covid-19 pandemic, for example, has seen an unprecedented rise in UICs and illustrates how vital their success can be for positively impacting the collaborators involved and society at large. Several challenges face the successful execution of UICs, not the least of which is the cultural difference between the collaborators. Overcoming these challenges is the subject of several research initiatives that seek to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) that UIC consortiums can use to develop their internal capabilities and project management maturity. The challenges facing one large UIC have been studied in Portugal. Practitioners and researchers were involved in generating insights into how the UIC could be more effective. This paper presents some of these challenges facing the UIC and how they were addressed. It also offers early results into the CSFs deemed essential by researchers and practitioners based on their experience together over seven years. Top CSFs include senior management commitment, effective communication, stakeholder engagement, good leadership, clear and realistic goals, mutual trust and respect, interpersonal teamwork, and clear roles and responsibilities. © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

7.
9th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, TEEM 2021 ; : 384-388, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1613094

ABSTRACT

This work shows a project-based learning methodology (PBL) compatible with e-learning within the Manufacturing Process Engineering course. Students of the Bachelor's Degree in Mechanical Engineering were proposed to carry out a project to design the manufacturing process to make a valve of a mechanical respirator for medical use. This activity was carried out during the confinement period due to the COVID 19 pandemic and this valve was chosen due to the high demand for respirators as a result of the pandemic at that time. Once the activity was applied, the evaluation process was applied and, finally, a questionnaire was passed on to students to obtain data on acceptance and perception of the activity. The results showed adequate acceptance in terms of learning, utility, and scalability. © 2021 ACM.

8.
9th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, TEEM 2021 ; : 406-410, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1613093

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses a new learning methodological approach compatible with e-learning and m-learning for undergraduate engineering students to learn the ventilation requirements for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in the workplace and to develop the critical sense to design ventilation systems in accordance with the standards that minimize the biological risk. Thus, a learning activity based on a simulation of infection risks is proposed in which three different initial ventilation requirements hypotheses were considered to calculate the necessary ventilation in the workplace. Subsequently, a simulation was carried out to obtain the probability of contagion in each of them and, in this way, to obtain information to make adequate decisions and improve critical thinking in the context of industrial hygiene. © 2021 ACM.

9.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 16(10):S881, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1482770

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, health care system was readjusted and thoracic cancer patients with COVID-19 were studied in international registries. In patients with malignant thoracic neoplasms the differential diagnosis is complex, due to the location of the disease and symptoms related to cancer. Age, smoking status, comorbidities, previous corticotherapy treatment, performance status and stage of thoracic malignancies have been described as prognostic factors. Some registries and series of COVID-19 in thoracic malignancy patients reported mortality rates of 26% (CCC-19), 32% (TERAVOLT), 39% (UKCCMP) and even 47% (Dutch Oncology COVID-19 Consortium). A national survey on the impact of COVID-19 in lung cancer patients' treatment has been presented by the Portuguese Lung Cancer Study Group. However, a national study of COVID-19 patients with thoracic malignancies has not been done. Objectives: To access the frequency and severity of COVID-19 in Portuguese patients with thoracic malignancies, and to study clinical manifestations, intensive care admission and factors associated with a worst outcome. Methods: LUNGCOVID is a multicenter national observational study. Patients with primary thoracic malignancy, age 18-years-old and SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or antigenic test since March 2020, will be eligible. Clinicopathological characteristics will be accessed by reviewing medical records. The variables to be studied are: age, sex, performance status, smoking habits, presence of comorbidities, previous corticotherapy treatment, factors related to the underlying cancer disease (stage of the disease, histological type), treatments, previous chest radiotherapy, oncologic systemic treatment, COVID-19 symptoms, need of intensive care admission and survival. Results: Section not applicable Conclusion: Section not applicable. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, thoracic tumors, Outcome

10.
Revista Pesquisa em Fisioterapia ; 11(3):510-517, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1438922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The covid-19 pandemic has made it necessary to study the impact of the pandemic and the new work routines imposed on workers on the health status of health professionals, especially hospital-based physical therapists. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness of hospital-based physical therapists during the covid-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study conducted in a public hospital in northeastern Brazil. The research had as target audience, hospital-based physical therapists working or not in covid sectors during the covid-19 pandemic. We applied the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and questionnaires with demographic, work, health, and stress perception characteristics. RESULTS: Forty-five physical therapists participated in the study, and it was observed that 62.2% were female, 66.7% reported working 60h per week, and 55.6% worked in the covid and non-covid sectors. A high frequency of poor sleep quality (68.9%) was observed regardless of workload or work sector. In addition, there was a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (43.3%) among physical therapists who worked 60h per week. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based physical therapists in a public institution have poor sleep quality, and those who work more hours have a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness. © 2021, BAHIANA - School of Medicine and Public Health. All rights reserved.

11.
Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira ; 66(Suppl. 2):17-21, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1309982

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient. These 10 recommendations from the Brazilian Medical Association (AMB) deal with some of the best practices for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and protection to the population, patients, doctors, and health professionals, in scenarios of unpredictability, uncertainty and that require rapid decision-making as in primary care, emergency or intensive care, or even in community environments or elective assistance in the care of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, as well as in the general population or with other diseases.

12.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 51(SUPPL 1):114, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1285023

ABSTRACT

Background: Messenger RNA (mRNA) has been regarded as a highly promising tool for gene therapy owing to its transient nature and biodegradability, which offers the possibility of controlling protein production by modulating mRNA pharmacokinetics. This technology has recently emerged to the clinic, following the recent developments of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection (Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna). In order to further expand its therapeutic potential, it is paramount to engineer vectors capable of effectively delivering mRNA to specific targets. Polymeric nanoparticles are attractive candidates owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low production costs. Their chemical versatility has enabled the rapid generation of libraries by combining different amines and acrylates/acrylamides via Michael addition. These libraries could guide the design of systems with tropism towards specific cell types, without the need of complicated formulation steps. Herein, we designed a high-throughput screening strategy for rapid in vitro identification of polymeric nanoparticles for safe and effective delivery of mRNA. Materials and Methods: Polymers were prepared by addition of different monomers (bisacrylamides, amines) diluted in DMSO at 1.6 M for 5 days at 60°C, followed by an end-capping step with 20% molar excess of their respective amines for 2 hours. Polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by electrostatic complexation in water of the resulting polymers with mRNA encoding Cre recombinase. Transfection efficiency of the generated 152 formulations was screened using reporter fibroblasts expressing GFP upon Cre-mediated recombination. The top 7 hits were selected for subsequent investigations. After purification by dialysis (MWCO = 2 kDa), these hits were tested for mRNA transfection across several cell types populating the skin (dermal fibroblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, macrophages). Results: Our high-throughput screening strategy identified a lead polymer candidate which transfected dermal fibroblasts much more effectively than other cell types. It also exhibited superior performance than lipid-based transfection agents in the delivery of different mRNAs (Cre recombinase, GFP), including the co-delivery of Cas9 mRNA and a guide RNA. Structure-activity analysis revealed that efficient mRNA delivery required the combination of high buffering capacity and low mRNA binding affinity for rapid release upon endosomal escape. Conclusions: High-throughput screening strategies can rapidly identify chemical features towards the design of highly efficient mRNA delivery systems. Polymeric nanoparticles are versatile systems which can unveil physicochemical properties required for efficient mRNA delivery to target cells. Here, we identified a lead candidate targeting fibroblasts, which could be promising for the treatment of fibrosis. This strategy could be expanded by developing additional reporter cells to unveil novel nanoformulations targeting other cell types.

13.
Revista Praxis Educacional ; 17(44):21, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1226015

ABSTRACT

This text addresses the right to school enrollment in the pandemic times of the new coronavirus. It starts from the principle that school enrollment is supported by the right to education, as advocated in the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (1988), symbolizing the student identity validation. For this purpose, it is referenced the norms and laws that govern the Brazilian legal system to analyze information in the public domain and also emergency education and mapping the situation of education provision in the country are presented, exposing strategies to validate the school year, as well as alternatives to ending the studies. In this way, it was configured as a qualitative, exploratory and documentary research that gathers a set of relevant data for context and problematization of the student's path. We found that the pandemic reached the right to enroll, on a larger scale in public educational establishments, and that decision-making to validate this right was postponed, due to circumstances imposed by COVID-19.

15.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 16(3):S285-S286, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1159457

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first patient with COVID-19 in Portugal was diagnosed on March 2. There was a lack of knowledge concerning the risks of COVID-19 infection in lung cancer patients, prognostic factors, the influence of cancer treatments and cure criteria. Treatments and consultations were readjusted in order to maintain the ones that increase patients’ survival, while reducing the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection. International and national “guidelines” were followed, but each hospital had its own strategies to reduce COVID-19 risk. Purpose: The Portuguese Lung Cancer Study Group launched a survey in order to study the early impact of COVID-19 in lung cancer patients, changes in treatments and the way of implementation of COVID-free circuits. Methods: A survey was sent to lung cancer doctors of all the Portuguese hospitals. Results: At the data cut-off, information from twenty one hospitals was collected, corresponding to about 66% (n=3.446) of each year new diagnoses of lung cancer in Portugal. In March and April there was a reduction in newly lung cancer diagnosed patients while comparing with 2019: in March, 86% had a reduction;in April, 90% of the hospitals reported a reduction and it was greater than 40% in eight hospitals (38%). About 62% of the doctors considered less referral from primary care as a cause, and 33% delayed biopsies or other imaging exams. The most difficult exams to obtain were CT guided biopsies and EBUS for 48%. The majority of the hospitals (57%) were also referral for COVID-19 patients’ treatment. In 48% of the lung cancer treating departments’ there were doctors reallocated to COVID-19 treatment areas. In 48% the assistance teams were divided into teams that weren’t previously working together. The majority of doctors (90%) reported having individual protection equipment available. Hospitals performed teleconsultation (100%), and, in seven hospitals (33%), more than half of the consultations were done using communication technology. All the hospitals were able to perform SARS-CoV-2 testing. It was done before every cycle of chemotherapy in 90% of the hospitals. In the majority (67%) it was only performed before day D1, in D1 and D8 chemotherapy protocols. About 19% reported changes in prescription of adjuvant chemotherapy and in maintenance chemotherapy, 33% increased the prescription of oral chemotherapy, 33% changed the periodicity, 29% reported reduction in inclusion in clinical trials. In 33% there was an earlier end of chemotherapy in ECOG2 and vulnerable patients. In 38% the prescription of G-CSF (Granulocity-colony stimulating factor) increased, being used for prophylaxis if the risk of febrile neutropenia was more than 10-15%. The periodicity of consultations was changed for patients under TKI treatment in 86%, and 67% hospitals reported changes in immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment schedule. In 29% oral drugs could be delivered at patients’ home. All the patients admitted for surgery were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 86% performed SARS-COV-2 testing before radiotherapy. Conclusion: Portuguese hospitals responded to the sudden need of creation of COVID-free circuits, change protocols and even teleconsultation. With a larger follow up we will study the late consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: COVID-19, survey, Portuguese Lung Cancer Study Group

16.
Computer Applications in Engineering Education ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1100849

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about new challenges to educational institutions around the world, as there has been a sudden interest in distance-learning solutions in the offering of disciplines, including the science and technology ones. Distance-learning will have a direct impact on the training of professionals that will develop the bespoke Internet of Things (IoT) solutions that homes, offices, companies, and cities are increasingly dependent on. Regardless, the training for IoT needs to consider the particularities of wireless communications, as it is essential to guarantee communication in any IoT solution. However, this training is hindered by the difficulty of conducting remote experiments that reproduce the wireless channel behavior. Besides, learning the main theoretical concepts of wireless connectivity would be facilitated by the adoption of practical methods centered on the student, the so-called inductive training methods. This paper presents a remote, low cost, open-source network emulation environment capable of reproducing the behavior of nonguided, low-power links under different configurations. The emulation environment incorporates inductive approaches in the experimentation with wireless connectivity while following a consolidated project methodology. This environment was offered at a postgraduate course in the first semester of 2020. An end of course survey with the students indicated that the environment contributed to the comprehension of the principles governing the over-the-air connectivity. The evidence suggests that this remote environment is a useful tool for academic investigations of the particularities of low-power wireless channels. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC

17.
Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira ; 66(9):1179-1179, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1041950
18.
Transl Med UniSa ; 23: 1-15, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031351

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled the frailty of our societies from too many points of view to look away. We need to understand why we were all caught unprepared. On the one hand, we have all short memories. As we forget too quickly, we were unable to recognize key factors influencing response and preparedness to public health threats. For many years, economic evaluation pushed governments all over the world to cut resources for public health systems, with COVID-19 pandemic the question arises: do we spend too much or too little on health care? What is the right amount to spend on health? Moreover, in many countries, the privatisation, or semi-privatisation, of healthcare may give rise to inequitable access to health care for everyone. Although COVID-19 is very "democratic", its consequences aren't. According to OECD, income inequality in OECD countries is at its highest level for the past half century. Three main causes have been recognized, technological revolution, globalization, and "financialisation". In this scenario, lockdown measures adopted to save lives are showing dramatic economic consequences. To address post COVID-19 reconstruction we need to go beyond GDP. As an economic measure this has many shortcomings in describing the real well-being of a country, and since what we measure affects what we do, new paradigms will have to guide the post COVID-19 reconstruction strategies, as the fate of countries and their citizens is at stake.

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