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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:812126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809385

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been rolled out in several low and middle-income countries including Brazil, where it was the mainstay of the first wave of immunization of healthcare workers and the elderly population. We aimed to assess the T cell and antibody responses of vaccinated individuals as compared to convalescent patients. We detected IgG against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, neutralizing antibodies against the reference Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain and used SARS-CoV-2 peptides to detect IFN-g and IL-2 specific T cell responses in a group of CoronaVac vaccinated individuals (N = 101) and convalescent (N = 72) individuals. The frequency among vaccinated individuals, of whom 96% displayed T cell and/or antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, is comparable to 98.5% responses of convalescent individuals. We observed that among vaccinated individuals, men and individuals 55 years or older developed significantly lower anti-RBD, anti-NP and neutralization titers against the Wuhan strain and antigen-induced IL-2 production by T cells. Neutralizing antibody responses for Gamma variant were even lower than for the Wuhan strain. Even though some studies indicated CoronaVac helped reduce mortality among elderly people, considering the appearance of novel variants of concern, CoronaVac vaccinated individuals above 55 years old are likely to benefit from a heterologous third dose/booster vaccine to increase immune response and likely protection.

2.
Journal of Water and Health ; 20(2):287-299, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1760068

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 340 million infection cases (as of 21 January 2022) and more than 5.57 million deaths globally. In reaction, science, technology and innovation communities across the globe have organised themselves to contribute to national responses to COVID-19 disease. A significant contribution has been from the establishment of wastewater-based epidemiological (WBE) surveillance interventions and programmes for monitoring the spread of COVID-19 in at least 55 countries. Here, we examine and share experiences and lessons learnt in establishing such surveillance programmes. We use case studies to highlight testing methods and logistics considerations associated in scaling the implementing of such programmes in South Africa, the Netherlands, Turkey and England. The four countries were selected to represent different regions of the world and the perspective based on the considerable progress made in establishing and implementing their national WBE programmes. The selected countries also represent different climatic zones, economies, and development stages, which influence the implementation of national programmes of this nature and magnitude. In addition, the four countries’ programmes offer good experiences and lessons learnt since they are systematic, and cover extensive areas, disseminate knowledge locally and internationally and partnered with authorities (government). The programmes also strengthened working relations and partnerships between and among local and global organisations. This paper shares these experiences and lessons to encourage others in the water and public health sectors on the benefits and value of WBE in tackling SARS-CoV-2 and related future circumstances. © 2022 The Authors

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330206

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness that can result in hospitalization or death. We investigated associations between rare genetic variants and seven COVID-19 outcomes in 543,213 individuals, including 8,248 with COVID-19. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not identify any clear associations with rare variants either exome-wide or when specifically focusing on (i) 14 interferon pathway genes in which rare deleterious variants have been reported in severe COVID-19 patients;(ii) 167 genes located in COVID-19 GWAS risk loci;or (iii) 32 additional genes of immunologic relevance and/or therapeutic potential. Our analyses indicate there are no significant associations with rare protein-coding variants with detectable effect sizes at our current sample sizes. Analyses will be updated as additional data become available, with results publicly browsable at https://rgc-covid19.regeneron.com .

4.
4th International Conference of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education, CISPEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1735788

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the main changes verified on the compulsory digital transition of teaching and learning in a mathematics curricular unit during the second semester of 2019-2020 academic year under COVID-19 pandemic. We highlighted the implementation process of online teaching-learning modes, including all procedures and practices that had been reshaped face to the new circumstances. Particular attention is paid to the main difficulties felt by the students and the teaching team in the adaptation phase to the new reality of distance learning. The analysis of outputs regarding the previous years and the comparison with the last assessment outputs lead us to conclude that the whole implementation has allowed mitigating an unfavourable scenario for educational success, in particular, the great social change in the student’s lives. We also present the conclusions regarding the students inquiries, which were passed anonymously at the end of the semester, where both quantitative and qualitative approach to study the perceptions of students about the online teaching-learning modes. As we can see from the answers to this questionnaire, the students missed the face-to-face classes and the contact with teachers and colleagues. They also felt difficulties in the changes that were made in the assessment with a view to moving to the online regime, but they also felt that the course as a whole went well, as evidenced by the success rate. Comparing the success rate with the ones from previous years, it’s shown that it decreases a little, although the drop is residual. © 2021 IEEE.

5.
Cogitare Enfermagem ; 26, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1726585

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and compare the perception of general care nurses and specialist nurses about the development of interventions promoting older people’s autonomy. Method: Descriptive- correlational, cross-sectional study. The Self-Assessment Scale for the Promotion of Older People’s Autonomy was applied to Portuguese nurses in September/October 2020. Results: The sample consisted of 356 nurses, specialists and general practitioners. All nurses had the perception of promoting older people’s autonomy, with less visibility in the development of interventions involving instrumental activities of daily living. Specialist nurses have a perception of more promotion of autonomy to older people through the development of physical and cognitive interventions (p<0.01), of interventions of instrumental activities of daily living (p<0.05), and in the training of the caregiver (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study allowed emphasizing the potential relevance of developing interventions that promote older people’s autonomy, as well as the importance of raising nurses’ awareness to carry them out. © 2021.

6.
Humanidades & Inovacao ; 8(59):97-110, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1694989

ABSTRACT

The present experience report, written by several hands, is the result of a process of sociocultural and artistic coexistence that has reflected and debated an Amazonian caboche identity. Having as a reference place the city of Braganca-PA, Atlantic Amazon, it was the work with different artistic languages, especially a performance, that gained prominence. Immersed in the pandemic context of covid-19, we collectively mobilized to think about the Corredora Caboketyka project. Contemplated by the Aldir Blanc Para Law, a proposal gained bodies and life in which different Amazonian subjects who identify themselves as cabokas, were able to collaboratively express and build the process that had as main objective to debate this Amazonian subjectivity within the scope of gender / sexualities, especially like transvestite cabokas.

7.
Journal of Water and Health ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1686272

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 340 million infection cases (as of 21 January 2022) and more than 5.57 million deaths globally. In reaction, science, technology and innovation communities across the globe have organised themselves to contribute to national responses to COVID-19 disease. A significant contribution has been from the establishment of wastewater-based epidemiological (WBE) surveillance interventions and programmes for monitoring the spread of COVID-19 in at least 55 countries. Here, we examine and share experiences and lessons learnt in establishing such surveillance programmes. We use case studies to highlight testing methods and logistics considerations associated in scaling the implementing of such programmes in South Africa, the Netherlands, Turkey and England. The four countries were selected to represent different regions of the world and the perspective based on the considerable progress made in establishing and implementing their national WBE programmes. The selected countries also represent different climatic zones, economies, and development stages, which influence the implementation of national programmes of this nature and magnitude. In addition, the four countries' programmes offer good experiences and lessons learnt since they are systematic, and cover extensive areas, disseminate knowledge locally and internationally and partnered with authorities (government). The programmes also strengthened working relations and partnerships between and among local and global organisations. This paper shares these experiences and lessons to encourage others in the water and public health sectors on the benefits and value of WBE in tackling SARS-CoV-2 and related future circumstances.

8.
A&C-Revista De Direito Administrativo & Constitucional ; 21(85):230-255, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667886

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes how normative arrangements can enable creative consensus solutions involving the Government in times of crisis, based on the possible increased conflicts resulting from public policies in the period during and after COVID-19. The aim is to verify if Brazil has a consensual normative arrangement that allows an adequate and agile response to a high number of conflicts, considering normative structures from three countries that have become the epicenter of the crisis: Italy, Spain and the USA. For this purpose, data were collected on the regulation of consensus in Brazil compared with the legal system of the three other elected systems as well as a bibliographic analysis that concerns to the dogmas that prevent consensual numerical advance in disputes involving the Government. Lastly, it aims to address how an interruption in legal reasoning can contribute to solutions used in a period of crisis.

9.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S249-S250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650252

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Predicting survival and risk of death after hospital discharge due to COVID-19 can help in screening patients who require special care after hospitalization. This study evaluates the survival curve and associated factors with mortality after COVID-19 admissions. Methods: Retrospective analysis until May 2021 from administrative database of 37,462 people. Analysis included 810 inpatients admitted with COVID-19 followed each month regarding survival after hospital discharge. Survival analysis performed using Cox Ridge Penalized Regression (CRPR), Gradient Boost Survival (GBS) and Random Survival Forest (RFS) from the Python library scikit-survival. Dataset separated into training and test set with the proportions of 75% and 25% respectively. Our predictive variables were patient’s age, sex, if had any comorbidity, cancer, hospitalization longer than 14 days or intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Results: From the 810 patients, 125 had died after hospital discharge, mean time of death 9.28 months. Model performance evaluated through the Concordance Index (C-Index) metric. CRPR had better performance with a C-Index of 0.74, while RFS and GBS had a C-Index of 0.73. Risk of death at any time during the follow-up period was significantly higher when presence of previous comorbidities (p=0.020), age greater than 60 years (p <0.001), ICU stay (p <0.001), and higher average length hospital stay (p=0.001). Conclusions: Several tools have been developed for to calculate absolute risk or chances of needing to go into hospital or dying from Covid-19. The online risk calculator that we developed is unique and suitable to predict which person present high risk of death after COVID-19 hospital discharges and prioritizing individuals to receive special care after leaving the hospital. Models like the one we have developed are only as good as the data they are trained on. We will update the calculator as the amount of data we are able to collect increases.

11.
Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1612284

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is responsible for a pandemic since March 2020 and it has no cure. Therefore, herein, different theoretical methods were used to obtain potential candidates from herbal compounds to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M-pro). Initially, the 16 best-scored compounds were selected from a library containing 4066 ligands using virtual screening by molecular docking. Among them, six molecules (physalin B 5,6-epoxide (PHY), methyl amentoflavone (MAM), withaphysalin C (WPC), daphnoline or trilobamine (TRI), cepharanoline (CEP) and tetrandrine (TET)) were selected based on Lipinski's rule and ADMET analysis as criteria. These compounds complexed with the M-pro were submitted to triplicate 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. RMSD, RMSF, and radius of gyration results show that the overall protein structure is preserved along the simulation time. The average Delta G(binding) values, calculated by the MM/PBSA method, were -41.7, -55.8, -45.2, -38.7, -49.3, and -57.9 kcal/mol for the PHY-M-pro, MAM-M-pro, WPC-M-pro, CEP-M-pro, TRI-M-pro, and TET-M-pro complexes, respectively. Pairwise decomposition analyses revealed that the binding pocket is formed by His41-Val42, Met165-Glu166-Leu167, Asp187, and Gln189. The PLS regression model generated by QSPR analysis indicated that non-polar and polar groups with the presence of hydrogen bond acceptors play an important role in the herbal compounds-M-pro interactions. Overall, we found six potential candidates to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 M-pro and highlighted key residues from the binding pocket that can be used for future drug design. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma

13.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 43(6):1747-1747, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1558042
14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295452

ABSTRACT

Background CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been rolled out in several low and middle-income countries including Brazil, where it was the mainstay of the first wave of immunization of health care workers and the elderly population. We aimed to assess the T cell and antibody responses of vaccinees as compared to convalescent subjects. Methods We detected IgG against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, neutralizing antibodies against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, and used SARS-CoV-2 peptides to detect IFN-g and IL-2 specific T cell responses in a cohort of CoronaVac vaccinees (N=101) and convalescent (N=72) individuals. Findings Among vaccinees, 95% displayed T cell or antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 as compared to 99% convalescent individuals. However, we observed that among vaccinees, males and individuals 55 years or older developed significantly lower anti-RBD, anti-NP and neutralizing antibody responses as well as antigen-induced IL-2 production by T cells. Interpretation Even though some studies indicated Coronavac helped reduce mortality among elderly people, considering the current dominance of the gamma variant of concern (VOC) and potential increase of the delta VOC, in Brazil, our data support that Coronavac vaccinees above 55 years old Coronavac vaccinees above 55 years old could benefit from a heterologous third dose/booster vaccine to improve immune response and protection. Funding Brazilian Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation, Sao Paulo State Foundation for Scientific research (FAPESP), JBS S.A.

15.
Environmental Research Letters ; 16(12):8, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550511

ABSTRACT

Consumer countries and blocs, including the UK and the EU, are defining legal measures to tackle deforestation linked to commodity imports, potentially requiring imported goods to comply with the relevant producer countries' land-use laws. Nonetheless, this measure is insufficient to address global deforestation. Using Brazil's example of a key exporter of forest-risk commodities, here we show that it has similar to 3.25 Mha of natural habitat (storing similar to 152.8 million tons of potential CO2 emissions) at a high risk of legal deforestation until 2025. Additionally, the country's legal framework is going through modifications to legalize agricultural production in illegally deforested areas. What was illegal may become legal shortly. Hence, a legality criterion adopted by consumer countries is insufficient to protect forests and other ecosystems and may worsen deforestation and conversion risks by incentivizing the weakening of social-environmental protection by producer countries.

16.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514739

ABSTRACT

Background In Europe, Public Health Residents (PHR) have participated in the response against COVID-19.The pandemic has had a profound mental health (MH) impact on healthcare workers, but little evidence has been accrued about the Public Health (PH) workforce.The current study aims at assessing prevalence and risk factors for pandemic-related depression (D), anxiety (A) and stress (S). Methods Between March 22 and April 11, 2021 we administered an online survey to PHR from France, Italy, Portugal and Spain, recruited through the national associations of PHR.We collected socio-demographic data and assessed changes in the working conditions due to COVID-19.We used the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21.Cut-off scores for D, A and S were: 9, 7, and 14.Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine risk factors for pandemic-related MH outcomes.Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 27. Results 443 out of approximately 2000 PHR completed the survey, response rate: 22.15%. Most responders (n = 226;51%) were from Italy, 87 (19.6%) from Portugal, 74 (16.47%) from Spain and 56 (12.6%) from France. Median age: 29 years (IQR 25 - 33). Female/male ratio: 1.6. PHR above the cut-offs for D, A and S were: 60.5%, 43.1%, 61.2%.DASS-21 scores were 13.3 (± 10.27), 8.13 (± 7.79), 19.06 (± 9.71), respectively.Across the multivariable logistic regression models, the main identified predictors were: for D - the COVID-19 impact on PH training (OR 1.78, 95% CI [1.12-2.80], p = 0.014);for A - the loss of research opportunities (OR 1.94, 95% CI [1.28-2.93], p = 0.002) and for psychological S - the year of residency (last year vs other years of residency: OR 2.3, 95% CI [1.20-4.38], p = 0.012). Conclusions Our sample featured mild-to-moderate levels of prevalent D, A and moderate levels of psychological stress.Overall, the main risk factors associated with negative psychometric outcomes were training challenges, loss of research opportunities and residency seniority. Key messages During the pandemic it is vital to increase knowledge and awareness about the impact of the health emergency on mental health in the Public Health workforce. It is important to deploy concrete efforts into building healthy work environments, guarantee adequate training and research opportunities for Public Health Residents.

17.
Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering ; 81:1-16, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513950

ABSTRACT

At a time we are experiencing the overspread deployment of artificial intelligent systems in all domains of life, the present paper addresses the topic of human condition questioning both the universal existential circumstances that human beings share with all the other life forms and those circumstances that are human specific, claiming, in this case, that the capacity for work, in all its tangible and non-tangible forms, is a unique essential human attribute, responsible for the evolution of humankind as a species and for the development of their world. Being intrinsically human and not the result of a temporary condition or state, [work], i.e. [productive goal-driven action] has been, throughout times, enhanced and augmented by the creation, at first, of rudimentary and then of progressively more and more sophisticated man-made tools. In the course of this developmental narrative contemporary societies have become hybrid environments, this means environments where the physical is permeated by the digital, where human interaction is mediated by advanced forms of virtual communication, where non-embodied and also embodied forms of artificial intelligence coexist with natural intelligence where ultimately [work] in its intrinsic humaness is being replaced in many sectors by task performing and decision-making per artificial intelligent systems. This present context and its predictable development in the near future demand the emergence of a deep awareness on the part of different stakeholders: research and development institutions, policy makers and governance, business and on the part of society in general, so that intelligent technology remains a human tool for enhancing and augmenting work, respecting its fundamental twofold dimension as: (1) a generative endowment for the creation of human reality (2) a means for the fulfilment and existential satisfaction of every human being. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 5(SUPPL 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1509165

ABSTRACT

Background: The high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a hallmark of COVID-19, particularly in intensive care units (ICU) patients. However, the magnitude of this risk is a matter of debate due to studies heterogeneity, significant changes on VTE management in COVID-19 era and scarce evidence of VTE risk in ICU patients with pneumonia in the pre-COVID-19 era. Aims: To evaluate the VTE risk in the pre-COVID-19 era in a large ICU database. Methods: Data of consecutive pneumonia patients admitted to ICU were retrieved from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) . VTE incidence during ICU stay was described. The association of thromboprophylaxis and VTE risk was determined by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, SOFA score, pneumonia diagnosis and type of ICU. Results: Among 6,842 pneumonia patients admitted to ICU, the median ICU stay was 11 (IQR 6-20) days. Tables 1 and 2 summarizes patients' characteristics and outcomes. 486 patients were diagnosed with VTE after a median of 3 (IQR 1-11) days in ICU. The overall cumulative incidence of VTE was 7% (95%CI 6.4-7.6), corresponding to a daily VTE incidence of 0.51% (95%CI 0.47-0.56). 1788 patients received thromboprophylaxis (out of 2958 for whom that data was available). The cumulative incidence of VTE was 10.7% (95%CI 8.9-12.6) among patients without thromboprophylaxis and 6.5% (95%CI 5.4-7.8) among those with thromboprophylaxis. Overall mortality was 19.3%, that was similar among patients with and without VTE (20.6% and 19.2%, respectively). (Table Presented) Conclusions: In pre-COVID-19 era, VTE rates in ICU patients with pneumonia was not substantially different from those reported in COVID-19 when VTE diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion. The risk of VTE was reduced by 46% with thromboprophylaxis. These findings can serve as comparator for future studies aiming at evaluating the impact of VTE on COVID-19.

19.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 133(3 SUPPL 2):1910, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1444827

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak represents a global health threat due to the unprecedented number of patients admitted to intensive care units and the overwhelming need for mechanical ventilation. Performing a tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients poses unique risks and demands for safety precautions. We report a case series of 10 patients with COVID-19 who underwent elective open tracheostomies to provide access for prolonged mechanical ventilation. At the time of tracheostomy, they had required a mean mechanical ventilation period of 18.6 days (range, 13-23 days) and exhibited a mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 242.8 (range, 165-321). All patients still tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of tracheostomy. In all cases, total intravenous anesthesia was used and deep neuromuscular paralysis was guaranteed. Pre-oxygenation was performed before the beginning of the procedure and before tracheal incision. Ventilation was ceased whilst the window in the trachea was being performed. A cuffed non-fenestrated tracheostomy tube was inserted and the cuff was inflated before resuming ventilation. All team members wore adequate personal protective equipment (PPE). Only one patient developed postoperative complications (pneumothorax and postoperative continuous bleeding) and no viral transmission to health care workers was documented. Our experience supports the safety of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients, provided that meticulous planning and strict safety recommendations are followed.

20.
18th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2021 ; 12933 LNCS:3-24, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437144

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures were employed to contain its spread. This paper describes the deployment and testing of a passive Wi-Fi scanning system to help people keep track of crowded spaces, hence comply with social distancing measures. The system is based on passive Wi-Fi sensing to detect human presence in 93 locations around a medium-sized European Touristic Island. This data is then used in website plugins and a mobile application to inform citizens and tourists about the locations’ crowdedness with real-time and historical data. To understand how people react to this type of information, we deployed online questionnaires in situ to collect user insights regarding the usefulness, safety, and privacy concerns. Results show that users considered the occupancy data reported by the system as positively related to their perception. Furthermore, the public display of this data made them feel safer while travelling and planning their commute. © 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

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