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Plants and Phytomolecules for Immunomodulation: Recent Trends and Advances ; : 519-541, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20234659


Research on natural products has investigated and employed many (bio)technologies to find out plant active fractions and optimize extraction and isolation of molecules looking for innovative clinical therapies for several clinical conditions, as well as immune-related diseases. Indeed, the world incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases have increased over the last years, while immune therapy has arisen as a new promising tool for cancer treatment. Also, in the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, immunomodulation has been proved effective to reduce the "cytokine storm” and avoid worsening the clinical condition of patients in the acute stage of respiratory syndrome. These health issues have also driven the search for new immunomodulatory compounds. In this context, prospective analysis is an important tool to identify the most relevant opportunities and demands in research and development (R&D) of pharmaceutical medicines, including substances able to modulate immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, prospection allows understanding the landscape of immunomodulatory plant-derived drugs and the associated technologies described in patents. This chapter employed the descriptors "Immunomodulator*” and "drug” and "plant” in search strategy to map the technological potential of immunomodulatory herbal drugs, using the software VantagePoint, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence, and Orbit Intelligence, respectively. The results provided quantitative data and technological indicators to drive future strategies for the development of these drugs. In conclusion, the most cited plant species in patents expressing molecules with immunomodulatory properties were Curcuma longa, Moringa oleifera, Remirea maritima, Maytenus ssp., Angelica sp., Fagopyrum esculentum, as well as plants from the families Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Moraceae, and Amaranthaceae, among others. The main chemical classes implicated in immunomodulation were xanthones, coumarins, flavonoids, and (tri)terpenes. The technological mapping also showed that in the year 2002, there was an increased deposit of patents, reaching the highest peak in 2009 with 56 patents. Nowadays, the United States is the country with the biggest number of patents, followed by Canada, Australia, and Korea. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022.

Geriatrics, Gerontology and Aging ; 15(24), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1761778


Long-term care facilities for older adults present a high risk of outbreaks since they concentrate often more frail and vulnerable individuals. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of influenza-like illness outbreaks and cases among older people in long-term care facilities in the state of S..o Paulo, Brazil. METODS: The analysis was performed through an exploratory and descriptive approach, with records from the outbreak module of the National System of Notifiable Diseases between January 2020 and June 2021. RESULTS: Outbreaks of influenza-like illness in this department represented 24.93% of all notifications. The highest concentration was seen in the state capital and metropolitan area. A total of 1 018 confirmed outbreaks were observed, involving 6 110 cases and 1 240 deaths among older people. Of these cases, 71.67% were confirmed for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), 12.77% for the influenza virus, and 15.56% for other respiratory viruses. The percentages regarding death outcomes were similar, with a 20.29% lethality of influenza-like illness. Within the studied group, the older adults were the most affected. A statistical difference was observed between cases and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the current scenario and the known vulnerabilities of these facilities, there is an urgent need for joint and articulated action by various administrative levels in order to minimize the devastating effects of influenza-like illness outbreaks (especially of COVID- 19) in older adults at long-term care homes. The strengthening of information systems and their interoperability are considered of utmost importance in order to improve the quality of information on outbreaks, which is essential during a pandemic.

AIDS Care ; 34(7): 832-838, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258667


Studies describing characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 among people living with HIV are currently limited, lacking detailed evaluation of the interplay among demographics, HIV-related variables, and comorbidities on COVID-19 outcomes. This retrospective cohort study describes mortality rates overall and according to demographic characteristics and explores predictors of admission to intensive care unit and death among 255 persons living with HIV with severe acute respiratory syndrome and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We found that the overall mortality rate was 4.1/1,000 person-days, with a case-fatality of 34%. Higher rates occurred among older adults, Black/Mixed skin color/race patients, and those with lower schooling. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, CD4 count, viral load and number of comorbidities, skin color/race, and schooling remained significantly associated with higher mortality. Although tenofovir use was more frequent among survivors in the univariable analysis, we failed to find a statistically significant association between tenofovir use and survival in the multivariable analysis. Our findings suggest that social vulnerabilities related to both HIV and COVID-19 significantly impact the risk of death, overtaking traditional risk factors such as age, sex, CD4 count, and comorbidities.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tenofovir