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1.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617060

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute bronchiolitis. The peak of the infection is historically described in the autumn/winter season. The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic seems to have modified the seasonality of some respiratory viruses. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed in Portugal was in March 2020. School closure and the use of masks are some of the pointed reasons for a decreased number of RSV infections observed in the autumn/winter season post the beginning of the pandemic. Interestingly, there are now a few studies from around the globe showing the resurgence of RSV infections in the spring/summer season that followed. Aim: To characterize the population of RSV infected infants admitted to a tertiary hospital before and after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, study was performed. All the RSV infected infants who were admitted to a Portuguese tertiary hospital from January 2017 to August 2021 were evaluated. The diagnosis of RSV infection was made through polymerase chain reaction of nasal secretions. Data such as age, gender, reason for admission, comorbidities, viral coinfection, bacterial superinfection, oxygen therapy, admission at Intensive Care Unit, ventilatory support and length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results: The data of a total of 354 patients was analyzed. The median age was 4 months (min 9 days, max 4 years), 50% were male. Before the COVID-19 pandemics (between 2017 and 2019), the peak of RSV infections used to occur in the months of December and January (medium of 25 and 28 cases per month, respectively). However, in December 2020 and January 2021 there was no detection of RSV. Nonetheless, a peak of RSV infection was verified in July and August 2021 (18 and 15 cases per month, respectively). The number of patients admitted for non-respiratory motifs, but in whom RSV was detected during the course of hospital stay, increased in 2021 (39%), comparing to 2017 (0%), 2018 (3%), 2019 (8%) or 2020 (3%), p<0,05. The number of viral coinfections was higher in 2021 (50%) comparing to 2017 (29%), 2019 (19%) or 2020 (18%), p<0,05. The patients admitted in 2021 were older (12 months average) than patients admitted in 2017 (5 months average) or 2018 (6 months average), p<0,05. Conclusions: RSV seasonality was modified by the COVID-19 pandemic, with an increase of the hospital admissions being registered in the summer of 2021. Our tertiary hospital's numbers reproduce what is being described in other places of the world. Subsequent studies are needed to verify the behavior of RSV infections in the next seasons, to understand if RSV infections are becoming more or less severe and to analyze the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the virulence of RSV.

2.
Pediatria-Asuncion ; 48(3):169-175, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the pandemic, all pregnant women underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of pregnant women with a positive PCR study for SARS-CoV-2 and their newborns in a hospital population. Materials and methods: This was an ambispective observational, cohort follow-up study, in the maternity ward of the Social Security Institute Hospital between March 01, 2020 to May 31, 2021. Third trimester pregnant women admitted for delivery, with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2, were included. Variables: age, symptoms, pregnancy complications, COVID-19 classification, admission to intensive care, neonatal anthropometry, follow-up of the mother-neonate pair up to 7 days postpartum. The data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. The protocol was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: 136 pregnant women and 139 newborns (3 twins) were admitted. 78.6% were symptomatic, 8.1% had severe forms. 10.3% presented pre-eclampsia, 10.3% entered intensive care and 2.2% died. 86.4% were born by cesarean section, there were 2 stillbirths. 29.2% were preterm, 18.2% had low birth weight, 24.8% were hospitalized. 3/137 died before 7 days of age. The neonatal swab was positive in 3. 78% were breastfed. Conclusions: 15.5% of positive pregnant women were admitted with moderate to severe forms of COVID 19, 10.3% were admitted to the ICU and 3 died. The percentage of caesarean section, prematurity and neonatal hospitalization was very high. There were 2 stillbirths and 2.9% of live births died. The neonatal swab was positive in 2.2%.

3.
European Neuropsychopharmacology ; 53:S597, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596915

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the physical isolation measures taken by the governments to reduce its propagation might have negative psychological consequences on the population [1, 2]. In this study, we aimed to explore, for the first time, how mental health status fluctuated along the weeks of the emergency state in Portugal, and to identify which factors may shape these changes in mental health outcomes. Methods: A longitudinal survey study using a convenience sample was conducted, evaluating demographic, clinical, lifestyle and mental health variables in the Portuguese population at three different time-points. Mental health was assessed by means of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and with quality of life (QoL) self-evaluation, satisfaction, and quality of sleep questions. Google Forms was used for the online survey, and social media and national newspapers were used to advertise and recruit possible volunteers. The first time-point took place between the 23rd of March and the 5th of April 2020, and the second and third time-points were 4 weeks and 8 weeks later, respectively. 748 participants (mean age = 39.52, % females = 79.95) provided data at all time-points. Repeated-measures analyses were performed to explore whether mental health significantly varied across time. Next, multiple regression models were used in order to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle factors significantly associated with each dependent variable's change (DASS-21 subscales and QoL measures). The following predictors were tested in the multiple regression models: age, sex, employment status, house balcony and/or terrace, living with children/teenagers/elderly, having a diagnosis of a psychiatric/physical disorder, consumption of substances several times a week, daily amount of time dedicated to sport/looking for COVID-19 related news, and the NEO-FFI subscales. Results We observed that depression (χ2F(2)=23.19, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.793), anxiety (χ2F(2)=97.04, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.745) and stress (χ2F(2)=35.11, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.788) symptoms seemed to improve as the weeks passed during the state of emergency, while the perception of quality of life (self-evaluation: χ2F(2)=140.4, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.749;satisfaction: χ2F(2)=82.02, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.765) and sleep (χ2F(2)=23.5, p<.001, Kendall's W=0.796) got worse. All multiple regression models were statistically significant (DASS-21 Depression: F(17,730)=6.53;p<.001, R2=0.132;DASS-21 Anxiety: F(17,730)=5.12;p<.001, R2=0.106;DASS-21 Stress: F(17,730)=7.16;p<.001, R2=0.143;QoL self-evaluation: F(17,730)=5.8;p<.001, R2=0.119;QoL satisfaction: F(17,730)=6.9;p<.001, R2=0.138;Quality of sleep: F(17,730)=1.98;p=.01, R2=0.044). Regarding the significant predictors, in summary, being female, younger, actively working, and extroverted appear to be protective factors of mental health adaptability during this particular period. On the contrary, having a psychiatric diagnosis or physical illness, and higher neuroticism seem to be risk factors for mental health worsening. Conclusions: Our results provide relevant and novel insights about the course of mental health changes and its predictors during the outbreak of COVID-19, which may help identify potential vulnerability groups. Importantly, the lack of a more diverse sample could limit the generalizability of our results, and other factors that were not considered in our analysis might also have a significant impact on mental health. No conflict of interest

4.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):47, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Covid-19 pandemic has forced governments to impose lockdown policies, thus impacting chronic patients who require regular follow-up. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lockdown on glycemic control of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients Methods: Retrospective study conducted at the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of Centro Hospitalar São João in Porto, Portugal. Patients aged 3-18 years with T1D on Continuous Insulin Subcutaneous Perfusion Devices (PCSI) were included. We collected data on the age, gender, BMI, daily insulin dose (DID) and glycemic control of the patients before and after the nationwide lockdown. Telemedicine visits began mid-March 2020 and went on until late May 2020. Patients were included into 3 age groups: 3-9, 10-13 and 14-18 years. Results: The study included 100 patients, 59 males, mean age of 12.5 years and mean diabetes duration of 7 years. Mean DID was 0,94U/kg for girls and 0,75U/kg for boys. Mean HbA1c was 7.4%, 7.8% and 8.3% for 3-9, 10-13 and 14-18 age groups respectively. Mean BMI pre and post confinement was 19.8 and 20.2 kg/m2. The lockdown was associated with an increase in all patients' BMI (p<0.001), particularly those aged 14-18 ys, in both genders. Difference of glycemic control pre and post lockdown was significant in the 10-13 age group (p=0.03), where the baseline and follow-up HbA1c was 7.8% and 8.2%. Conclusions: An overall increase in BMI may correlate with a lack of physical activity amid confinement. The impaired glucose control in adolescents aged 10-13 years may be explained by the typical insulin resistance of prepubertal and early pubertal children. Metabolic control in older adolescents did not aggravate during the lockdown. This may be due to regular home-cooked meals and close monitoring by parents. In addition, the continuation of health care assistance through telemedicine probably had a significant contribution.

5.
International Psychogeriatrics ; 33:96-97, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1548274
6.
African Journal of Wildlife Research ; 51(1):100-110, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471031

ABSTRACT

Global COVID-19 responses by governments restricted international travel, imposed national lockdowns, reduced economies, and influenced people's livelihoods. Travel restrictions and national lockdowns may constrain international illegal supply chains of high value wildlife products such as rhinoceros (rhino) horn. We evaluated whether the COVID-19 lockdown responses by South Africa induced a poaching pause on rhinos in Kruger National Park. We collated information on poaching incidences from 2017 and made predictions for expected incidences during 2020 using trends noted between 2017 and 2019. Rangers observed substantially fewer incidences of poaching during South Africa's hard lockdown. As restrictions eased, poaching incidences increased. Despite the COVID-19 poaching pause, both black and white rhinos continued to decline in Kruger National Park as recruitment could not offset poaching and natural deaths. © 2021 Southern African Wildlife Management Association. All rights reserved.

7.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 133(3 SUPPL 2):1705, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1445071

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Regional techniques are valuable tools in this specific pandemic context, inclusive in terms of patient and team safety. The authors report the ultrasound-guided selective trunk block (STB) of the brachial plexus with superficial cervical plexus (SCP) for proximal humeral fracture surgery. Case reports: Case 1: 52-year-old male proposed for open reduction and fixation (ORF) of the humerus. Case 2: 53-year-old male proposed for ORF of oblique fracture of the humeral shaft. Both patients were obese, had a hypertensive disease, and a positive test for SARS-COV2. The procedures were performed under ultrasound-guided STB and SCPB using 15 + 3 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine and 10 + 3 mL of lidocaine 1,5%. Intraoperatively, dexamethasone 4 mg, propofol IV perfusion titrated for BIS 60-70, and paracetamol 1g were administered. None of the patients experienced pain, desaturation, or any other complications. Postoperatively, there was no need for rescue analgesia. They had no complications on discharge and globally were satisfied with the technique. Discussion: When a patient with a positive test for SARS-COV2 needs surgery, regional anesthesia allows minimal aerosolization without airway manipulation, but also adds advantages in terms of hemodynamic stability, postoperative analgesia with decreased opioid consumption, and patient's recovery time. In these case reports, SCPB with Selective Trunk Block (upper trunk - C5 and C6, middle trunk - C7, and inferior trunk - C8-T1) allow the ideal target for a safe and effective block, avoiding unwanted side effects.

9.
AHFE Conference on Human Aspects of Transportation, 2021 ; 270:339-347, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1366313

ABSTRACT

In the frame of AUTODRIVING Project addressing automation in the road system, a Focus Group (FG) study was planned and setup targeting the collection of data to be used in the definition of details for the experimental project phase: the tests on a driving simulator. Having followed the FG procedure and prepared every required methodological tool, the planned FG sessions were ready to start when the pandemic outbreak imposed a lockdown for several months, which led to plan remote FG sessions. Thus, the planned FG sessions have been converted into remote FG sessions. Furthermore, most of the previously selected participants couldn’t participate, and the methodological procedure had to be re-initiated according to the new conditions imposed by the COVID 19 lockdown situation. The FG results were poorer than expected but the methodology for FG remote sessions has been set up and improved as the researchers’ experience was increased. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

10.
Humanidades & Inovacao ; 8(40):186-196, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1348955

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the continuing education of literacy teachers in the context of remote education, established from the pandemic of COVID-19. Thereby, it conducted a survey in the virtual environment with the application of a semi-structured questionnaire elaborated in the Google forms application, directed to teachers from schools that works in the states of Paraiba and Pernambuco. For the analyzes and discussions, the responses were obtained from eleven literacy teachers and used as an inclusion criterion, which makes up a total of 96 survey respondents. The qualitative analysis of themes in the teachers' testimonies indicates that the students' learning conditions and the teachers' exhaustive working conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, in convergence with the lack of strategic planning and infrastructure of the education networks, showed as limiting elements of the continuing education of literacy teachers to work in the remote teaching model.

11.
International Journal of Marketing Communication and New Media ; : 150-170, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1323611

ABSTRACT

Issues such as environmental sustainability have become a prominent theme, especially in the hotel sector. The growth of this sector has given greater visibility to its environmental impacts and raised concerns about how the industry is dealing with this issue. Faced with the recognition that the future of the planet is under threat, consumers are increasingly aware and, consequently, opting for environmentally sustainable solutions. As a result, an increasing number of hotels have begun to change their operations and proactively implement environmental initiatives that, today, play a critical role in marketing and management. However, the current state of research on this subject is relatively recent and limited, especially in Portugal. To address the previously mentioned research gap, the main purpose of this study is to understand the perspectives of Portuguese green hotel managers in relation to the environmental management practices in which the hotel is involved. A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured online interviews with green hotel managers certified with Green Key in Portugal. Several motivations, benefits, and difficulties regarding adoption of environmental strategies were identified from the data analysis. The results reveal that covid-19 caused setbacks in environmental performance, generating more nonrecyclable waste, but, for some hotels, there was time to reflect on strategies, new green measures and to raise employees' awareness. This research is expected to contribute to the increase of knowledge about sustainability assumptions and to the creation of new approaches to environmental management in hotels.

12.
New Journal of Physics ; 23(7):17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1322595

ABSTRACT

Human mobility, contact patterns, and their interplay are key aspects of our social behavior that shape the spread of infectious diseases across different regions. In the light of new evidence and data sets about these two elements, epidemic models should be refined to incorporate both the heterogeneity of human contacts and the complexity of mobility patterns. Here, we propose a theoretical framework that allows accommodating these two aspects in the form of a set of Markovian equations. We validate these equations with extensive mechanistic simulations and derive analytically the epidemic threshold. The expression of this critical value allows us to evaluate its dependence on the specific demographic distribution, the structure of mobility flows, and the heterogeneity of contact patterns, thus shedding light on the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the epidemic detriment driven by recurrent mobility patterns reported in the literature.

13.
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services ; 61, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1253255

ABSTRACT

In view of panic buying prevalence across countries during the COVID 19 pandemic, this study explores the external factors that may influence consumer engagement or disengagement with this buying behaviour and how they are related. Two studies were undertaken to achieve this research aim. The first was to explore these factors through a scale development processes. Three factors were revealed including (1) intervention and support from the government to combat and manage the pandemic, (2) intervention and support from businesses to prevent stockpiling or panic buying, and (3) influence of different categories of social groups, namely, family and relatives, peers and friends, acquaintance and non-acquainted social-media group. The second study collected data from five countries (Australia, India, China, Vietnam and Indonesia) to understand the relationship between these factors and panic buying engagement or disengagement. The rationale for the country choices has been provided in this manuscript. The results show that interventions and support from government and businesses influenced panic buying engagement, whereas social groups did not. Implications of these findings are highlighted for the relevant stakeholders. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

16.
Ibero-Am. WWW / Internet Conf. ; : 19-26, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1049395

ABSTRACT

Social networks play an important role in the life of today's societies. Brands create and share advertising video ads on social media networks and, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, social networks have allowed brands to communicate with their consumers, and creativity and narrative structures were important to consumers. Brands are producing video ads that show consumers' day context in order to obtain greater social media engagement. Considering that, this paper aims to study whether that goal is being achieved. The empirical research, from which we obtained 427 responses and which was tested using structural equations using the AMOS software, allows to conclude that creativity, the structure of the narrative and the consumer's congruence with the brand are determinants of engagement in social media. Further, presents practical and theoretical recommendations. © Ibero-American WWW / Internet Conference 2020.

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