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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 850535, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809422

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 remains challenging. A large number of hospitalized patients are at a high risk of developing AKI. For this reason, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess the incidence and management of AKI in critically ill patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This is a multicenter, observational, nationwide online survey, involving the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy, developed in partnership between the scientific societies such as SIN and SIAARTI. Invitations to participate were distributed through emails and social networks. Data were collected for a period of 1 week during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 141 responses were collected in the SIN-SIAARTI survey: 54.6% from intensivists and 44.6% from nephrologists. About 19,000 cases of COVID-19 infection have been recorded in hospitalized patients; among these cases, 7.3% had a confirmed acute kidney injury (AKI), of which 82.2% were managed in ICUs. Only 43% of clinicians routinely used the international KDIGO criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was performed in 628 patients with continuous techniques used most frequently, and oliguria was the most common indication (74.05%). Early initiation was preferred, and RRT was contraindicated in the case of therapeutic withdrawal or in the presence of severe comorbidities or hemodynamic instability. Regional anticoagulation with citrate was the most common choice. About 41.04% of the interviewed physicians never used extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBPTs) for inflammatory cytokine or endotoxin removal. Moreover, 4.33% of interviewed clinicians used these techniques only in the presence of AKI, whereas 24.63% adopted them even in the absence of AKI. Nephrologists made more use of EBPT, especially in the presence of AKI. HVHF was never used in 58.54% of respondents, but HCO membranes and adsorbents were used in more than 50% of cases. Conclusion: This joint SIN-SIAARTI survey at the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy showed that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an underestimation of AKI based on the "non-use" of common diagnostic criteria, especially by intensivists. Similarly, the use of specific types of RRT and, in particular, blood purification therapies for immune modulation and organ support strongly differed between centers, suggesting the need for the development of standardized clinical guidelines.

2.
Kidney360 ; 3(2): 293-306, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776886

ABSTRACT

Background: The acute and long-term effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in individuals with GN are still unclear. To address this relevant issue, we created the International Registry of COVID-19 infection in GN. Methods: We collected serial information on kidney-related and -unrelated outcomes from 125 GN patients (63 hospitalized and 62 outpatients) and 83 non-GN hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a median follow-up period of 6.4 (interquartile range 2.3-9.6) months after diagnosis. We used logistic regression for the analyses of clinical outcomes and linear mixed models for the longitudinal analyses of eGFR. All multiple regression models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use. Results: After adjustment for pre-COVID-19 eGFR and other confounders, mortality and AKI did not differ between GN patients and controls (adjusted odds ratio for AKI=1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 3.60; P=0.64). The main predictor of AKI was pre-COVID-19 eGFR (adjusted odds ratio per 1 SD unit decrease in eGFR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.76 to 5.28; P<0.001). GN patients developing AKI were less likely to recover pre-COVID-19 eGFR compared with controls (adjusted 6-month post-COVID-19 eGFR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.56; times pre-COVID-19 eGFR). Shorter duration of GN diagnosis, higher pre-COVID-19 proteinuria, and diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease were associated with a lower post-COVID-19 eGFR. Conclusions: Pre-COVID-19 eGFR is the main risk factor for AKI regardless of GN diagnosis. However, GN patients are at higher risk of impaired eGFR recovery after COVID-19-associated AKI. These patients (especially those with high baseline proteinuria or a diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease) should be closely monitored not only during the acute phases of COVID-19 but also after its resolution.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), electrolyte, and acid-base disorders complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients with coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcomes. It is not known whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) changes the clinical significance of AKI and/or electrolyte or acid-base disorders developing during ICU stay. We conducted a retrospective study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to evaluate whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the ICU affects the impact of AKI and of serum electrolytes or acid-base status on mortality. We carried out a 28-day retrospective follow-up study on 115 critically ill patients consecutively admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 at a tertiary care university hospital and surviving longer than 24 h. We collected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, and longitudinal data on kidney function, kidney replacement therapy, serum electrolytes, and acid-base status. We used Cox proportional hazards multiple regression models to test the interaction between the time-varying variates new-onset AKI or electrolyte or acid-base disorders and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission. After adjusting for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and AKI present at ICU admission, new-onset AKI was significantly associated with 28-day mortality only in the patients in the lowest and middle SOFA score tertiles [lowest SOFA tertile, hazard ratio (HR) 4.27 (95% CI: 1.27-14.44; P = 0.019), middle SOFA tertile, HR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.11-9.04, P = 0.031), highest SOFA tertile, HR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.24-2.50; P = 0.66); P = 0.026 for interaction with SOFA as a continuous variable]. After stratifying for APACHE II tertile, results were similar [adjusted HR (aHR) in the lowest tertile 6.24 (95% CI: 1.85-21.03, P = 0.003)]. SOFA or APACHE II at admission did not affect the relationship of serum electrolytes and acid-base status with mortality, except for new-onset acidosis which was associated with increased mortality, with the HR of death increasing with SOFA or APACHE II score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Thus, unlike in the most severe critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, in patients with the less severe conditions at admission the development of AKI during the stay is a strong indicator of increased hazard of death.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood. METHODS: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry. RESULTS: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; P=6.35×10-8) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract (WDPCP, OTX1, BMP5, VANGL1, and WNT5A). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in WDPCP (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; P=1.86×10-9). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of Wnt5a mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186975

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common finding in kidney donors and recipients. AKI in kidney donor, which increases the risk of delayed graft function (DGF), may not by itself jeopardize the short- and long-term outcome of transplantation. However, some forms of AKI may induce graft rejection, fibrosis, and eventually graft dysfunction. Therefore, various strategies have been proposed to identify conditions at highest risk of AKI-induced DGF, that can be treated by targeting the donor, the recipient, or even the graft itself with the use of perfusion machines. AKI that occurs early post-transplant after a period of initial recovery of graft function may reflect serious and often occult systemic complications that may require prompt intervention to prevent graft loss. AKI that develops long after transplantation is often related to nephrotoxic drug reactions. In symptomatic patients, AKI is usually associated with various systemic medical complications and could represent a risk of mortality. Electronic systems have been developed to alert transplant physicians that AKI has occurred in a transplant recipient during long-term outpatient follow-up. Herein, we will review most recent understandings of pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and short- and long-term consequences of AKI occurring in both the donor and in the kidney transplant recipient.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. We hypothesized that colchicine, by counteracting proinflammatory pathways implicated in the uncontrolled inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, reduces pulmonary complications, and improves survival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients (hospitalized with pneumonia on CT scan or outpatients) who received colchicine and compared with 70 control patients who did not receive colchicine in two serial time periods at the same institution. We used inverse probability of treatment propensity-score weighting to examine differences in mortality, clinical improvement (using a 7-point ordinary scale), and inflammatory markers between the two groups. RESULTS: Amongst the 141 COVID-19 patients (118 [83.7%] hospitalized), 70 (50%) received colchicine. The 21-day crude cumulative mortality was 7.5% in the colchicine group and 28.5% in the control group (P = 0.006; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.09 to 0.67]); 21-day clinical improvement occurred in 40.0% of the patients on colchicine and in 26.6% of control patients (adjusted relative improvement rate: 1.80 [95%CI: 1.00 to 3.22]). The strong association between the use of colchicine and reduced mortality was further supported by the diverging linear trends of percent daily change in lymphocyte count (P = 0.018), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), and in C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.009). Colchicine was stopped because of transient side effects (diarrhea or skin rashes) in 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study colchicine was associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in COVID-19 patients. This support the rationale for current larger randomized controlled trials testing the safety/efficacy profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colchicine/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Crit Care ; 63: 22-25, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062451

ABSTRACT

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in critically ill patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially when Kidney Replacement Therapy (KRT) is required. A condition of hypercoagulability has been frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, and this very fact may complicate KRT management. Sustained Low Efficiency Dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid dialysis modality increasingly used in critically ill patients since it allows to maintain acceptable hemodynamic stability and to overcome the increased clotting risk of the extracorporeal circuit, especially when Regional Citrate Anticoagulation (RCA) protocols are applied. Notably, given the mainly diffusive mechanism of solute transport, SLED is associated with lower stress on both hemofilter and blood cells as compared to convective KRT modalities. Finally, RCA, as compared with heparin-based protocols, does not further increase the already high hemorrhagic risk of patients with AKI. Based on these premises, we performed a pilot study on the clinical management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated AKI who underwent SLED with a simplified RCA protocol. Low circuit clotting rates were observed, as well as adequate KRT duration was achieved in most cases, without any relevant metabolic complication nor worsening of hemodynamic status.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Citric Acid/therapeutic use , Critical Care/methods , Hybrid Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome
10.
Kidney Int ; 99(1): 227-237, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922088

ABSTRACT

The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on individuals with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, who are often undergoing immunosuppressive treatments, are unknown. Therefore, we created the International Registry of COVID infection in glomerulonephritis (IRoc-GN) and identified 40 patients with glomerulonephritis and COVID-19 followed in centers in North America and Europe. Detailed information on glomerulonephritis diagnosis, kidney parameters, and baseline immunosuppression prior to infection were recorded, as well as clinical presentation, laboratory values, treatment, complications, and outcomes of COVID-19. This cohort was compared to 80 COVID-positive control cases from the general population without glomerulonephritis matched for the time of infection. The majority (70%) of the patients with glomerulonephritis and all the controls were hospitalized. Patients with glomerulonephritis had significantly higher mortality (15% vs. 5%, respectively) and acute kidney injury (39% vs. 14%) than controls, while the need for kidney replacement therapy was not statistically different between the two groups. Receiving immunosuppression or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors at presentation did not increase the risk of death or acute kidney injury in the glomerulonephritis cohort. In the cohort with glomerulonephritis, lower serum albumin at presentation and shorter duration of glomerular disease were associated with greater risk of acute kidney injury and need for kidney replacement therapy. No differences in outcomes occurred between patients with primary glomerulonephritis versus glomerulonephritis associated with a systemic autoimmune disease (lupus or vasculitis). Thus, due to the higher mortality and risk of acute kidney injury than in the general population without glomerulonephritis, patients with glomerulonephritis and COVID-19 should be carefully monitored, especially when they present with low serum albumin levels.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis/mortality , Humans , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(7):e036893-e036893, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD), intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a clinical problem that nephrologists and dialysis nurses face daily in their clinical routine. Despite the technological advances in the field of HD, the incidence of hypotensive events occurring during a standard dialytic treatment is still very high. Frequently recurring hypotensive episodes during HD sessions expose patients not only to severe immediate complications but also to a higher mortality risk in the medium term. Various strategies aimed at preventing IDH are currently available, but there is lack of conclusive data on more integrated approaches combining different interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, randomised, open-label, crossover trial (each subject will be used as his/her own control) that will be performed in two distinct phases, each of which is divided into several subphases. In the first phase, 27 HD sessions for each patient will be used, and will be aimed at the validation of a new ultrafiltration (UF) profile, designed with an ascending/descending shape, and a standard dialysate sodium concentration. In the second phase, 33 HD sessions for each patient will be used and will be aimed at evaluating the combination of different UF and sodium profiling strategies through individualised dialysate sodium concentration. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol has been reviewed and approved by the local Institutional Ethics Committee (Comitato Etico AVEN, prot. 43391 22.10.19). The results of the trial will be presented at local and international conferences and submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03949088).

12.
J Nephrol ; 33(6): 1213-1218, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655720

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) outbreak that was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 had led to an internationally variable but concerning incidence of COVID-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), with prevalence reported as high as 46% in large cohorts of hospitalized patients. Variability in AKI may be explained by differences in traditional risk factors for AKI, heterogeneity among patient cohorts, and differences in racial and ethnic groups. Further, AKI requiring kidney replacement therapies (KRT) has been associated with increased mortality. Proposed mechanisms of kidney injury include direct viral-induced tubular or glomerular injury, sepsis-associated AKI, and thrombotic disease. Kidney pathology include acute tubular injury, glomerular fibrin thrombi, pigmented tubular casts, and collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. "Viral-like" particles have been observed in renal samples at electron microscopy and viral RNA has been identified in both glomerular and tubular compartments of kidney specimens, but the link between viral presence and injury remain unclear. Though the link between AKI and poor outcomes is clear, prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease has not yet been reported. In patients on immunosuppression like those with kidney transplants or glomerular disease, COVID-19 has presented a management dilemma. Herein, we review the existing literature on kidney disease in COVID-19 and discuss what remains to be learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidity , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
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