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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3571, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908170

ABSTRACT

The availability of three COVID-19 vaccines in the United States provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine how vaccine platforms and timing of vaccination in pregnancy impact maternal and neonatal immunity. Here, we characterize the antibody profile after Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccination in 158 pregnant individuals and evaluate transplacental antibody transfer by profiling maternal and umbilical cord blood in 175 maternal-neonatal dyads. These analyses reveal lower vaccine-induced functions and Fc receptor-binding after Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA vaccination and subtle advantages in titer and function with mRNA-1273 versus BN162b2. mRNA vaccines have higher titers and functions against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. First and third trimester vaccination results in enhanced maternal antibody-dependent NK-cell activation, cellular and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement deposition relative to second trimester. Higher transplacental transfer ratios following first and second trimester vaccination may reflect placental compensation for waning maternal titers. These results provide novel insight into the impact of platform and trimester of vaccination on maternal humoral immune response and transplacental antibody transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/methods
2.
Curr Pediatr Rep ; 10(2): 45-54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859164

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Exposure to trauma accelerates during the adolescence, and due to increased behavioral and psychiatric vulnerability during this developmental period, traumatic events during this time are more likely to cause a lasting impact. In this article, we use three case studies of hospitalized adolescents to illustrate the application of trauma-informed principles of care with this unique population. Recent Findings: Adolescents today are caught in the crosshairs of two syndemics-racism and other structural inequities and the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased hospitalizations and mental health diagnoses during the past two years signal toxic levels of stress affecting this group. Trauma-informed care promotes health, healing, and equity. Summary: This concept of the "trauma-informed approach" is still novel; through examples and practice, providers can learn to universally apply the trauma-informed care framework to every patient encounter to address the harmful effects of trauma and promote recovery and resilience.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 130, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient-level predictors of enrollment in pediatric biorepositories are poorly described. Especially in pandemic settings, understanding who is likely to enroll in a biorepository is critical to interpreting analyses conducted on biospecimens. We describe predictors of pediatric COVID-19 biorepository enrollment and biospecimen donation to identify gaps in COVID-19 research on pediatric biospecimens. METHODS: We compared data from enrollees and non-enrollees aged 0-25 years with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection who were approached for enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital pediatric COVID-19 biorepository between April 12, 2020, and May 28, 2020, from community or academic outpatient or inpatient settings. Demographic and clinical data at presentation to care were from automatic and manual chart extractions. Predictors of enrollment and biospecimen donation were assessed with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 457 individuals approached, 214 (47%) enrolled in the biorepository. A COVID-19 epidemiologic risk factor was recorded for 53%, and 15% lived in a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined COVID-19 hotspot. Individuals living in a COVID-19 hotspot (relative risk (RR) 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-3.2]), with symptoms at presentation (RR 1.8 [95% CI: 1.2-2.7]), or admitted to hospital (RR 1.8 [95% CI: 1.2-2.8]) were more likely to enroll. Seventy-nine percent of enrollees donated any biospecimen, including 97 nasopharyngeal swabs, 119 oropharyngeal swabs, and 105 blood, 16 urine, and 16 stool specimens, respectively. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status based on zip code did not predict enrollment or biospecimen donation. CONCLUSIONS: While fewer than half of individuals approached consented to participate in the pediatric biorepository, enrollment appeared to be representative of children affected by the pandemic. Living in a COVID-19 hotspot, symptoms at presentation to care and hospital admission predicted biorepository enrollment. Once enrolled, most individuals donated a biospecimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Massachusetts , Pandemics , Young Adult
6.
J Pediatr ; 227: 45-52.e5, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As schools plan for re-opening, understanding the potential role children play in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the factors that drive severe illness in children is critical. STUDY DESIGN: Children ages 0-22 years with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presenting to urgent care clinics or being hospitalized for confirmed/suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at Massachusetts General Hospital were offered enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric COVID-19 Biorepository. Enrolled children provided nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and/or blood specimens. SARS-CoV-2 viral load, ACE2 RNA levels, and serology for SARS-CoV-2 were quantified. RESULTS: A total of 192 children (mean age, 10.2 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled. Forty-nine children (26%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; an additional 18 children (9%) met the criteria for MIS-C. Only 25 children (51%) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with fever; symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, if present, were nonspecific. Nasopharyngeal viral load was highest in children in the first 2 days of symptoms, significantly higher than hospitalized adults with severe disease (P = .002). Age did not impact viral load, but younger children had lower angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression (P = .004). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were increased in severe MIS-C (P < .001), with dysregulated humoral responses observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that children may be a potential source of contagion in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic despite having milder disease or a lack of symptoms; immune dysregulation is implicated in severe postinfectious MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(10): 2556-2564, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670342

ABSTRACT

The difference in morbidity and mortality between adult and pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 infections is dramatic. Understanding pediatric-specific acute and delayed immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for the development of vaccination strategies, immune-targeted therapies, and treatment and prevention of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The goal of this review is to highlight research developments in the understanding of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a specific focus on age-related immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
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