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Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533752


Hyponatremia, i.e., the presence of a serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) < 136 mEq/L, is the most frequent electrolyte imbalance in the elderly and in hospitalized patients. Symptoms of acute hyponatremia, whose main target is the central nervous system, are explained by the "osmotic theory" and the neuronal swelling secondary to decreased extracellular osmolality, which determines cerebral oedema. Following the description of neurological and systemic manifestations even in mild and chronic hyponatremia, in the last decade reduced extracellular [Na+] was associated with detrimental effects on cellular homeostasis independently of hypoosmolality. Most of these alterations appeared to be elicited by oxidative stress. In this review, we focus on the role of oxidative stress on both osmolality-dependent and -independent impairment of cell and tissue functions observed in hyponatremic conditions. Furthermore, basic and clinical research suggested that oxidative stress appears to be a common denominator of the degenerative processes related to aging, cancer progression, and hyponatremia. Of note, low [Na+] is able to exacerbate multiple manifestations of senescence and to decrease progression-free and overall survival in oncologic patients.

Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604


OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus