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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987153

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. The effects of COVID-19 on the long-term mental health of minorities remains unclear. To evaluate differences in odds of screening positive for depression and anxiety among various racial and ethnic groups during the latter phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 691,473 participants nested within the prospective smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K). from February 23, 2021 to June 9, 2021. In the U.S. (n=57,187), compared to White participants, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for screening positive for depression were 1·16 (95% CI: 1·02 to 1·31) for Black, 1·23 (1·11 to 1·36) for Hispanic, and 1·15 (1·02 to 1·30) for Asian participants, and 1·34 (1·13 to 1·59) for participants reporting more than one race/other even after accounting for personal factors such as prior history of a mental health disorder, COVID-19 infection status, and surrounding lockdown stringency. Rates of screening positive for anxiety were comparable. In the U.K. (n=643,286), racial/ethnic minorities had similarly elevated rates of positive screening for depression and anxiety. These disparities were not fully explained by changes in leisure time activities. Racial/ethnic minorities bore a disproportionate mental health burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. These differences will need to be considered as health care systems transition from prioritizing infection control to mitigating long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac171, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908873

ABSTRACT

Background: Global efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including seroprevalence, risk factors, and long-term sequelae, as well as immune responses after vaccination across populations and the social dimensions of prevention and treatment strategies. Methods: In the United States, the National Cancer Institute in partnership with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, established the SARS-CoV-2 Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) as the nation's largest coordinated effort to study coronavirus disease 2019. The network comprises multidisciplinary researchers bridging gaps and fostering collaborations among immunologists, epidemiologists, virologists, clinicians and clinical laboratories, social and behavioral scientists, policymakers, data scientists, and community members. In total, 49 institutions form the SeroNet consortium to study individuals with cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, transplant recipients, as well as otherwise healthy pregnant women, children, college students, and high-risk occupational workers (including healthcare workers and first responders). Results: Several studies focus on underrepresented populations, including ethnic minorities and rural communities. To support integrative data analyses across SeroNet studies, efforts are underway to define common data elements for standardized serology measurements, cellular and molecular assays, self-reported data, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Conclusions: In this paper, we discuss the overarching framework for SeroNet epidemiology studies, critical research questions under investigation, and data accessibility for the worldwide scientific community. Lessons learned will help inform preparedness and responsiveness to future emerging diseases.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265473, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the value of risk stratification by documented diagnosis of diabetes and objectively measured height and weight (BMI) in COVID-19 severity and mortality in a large sample of patients in an urban hospital located in Southern California. METHODS: Data from a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients treated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between March 8, 2020, and January 25, 2021, was analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and pre-existing conditions were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models identified associated risk factors, and a regression causal mediation analysis examined the role of diabetes in the association between obesity and illness severity. All analyses were stratified by age (<65 and ≥65). RESULTS: Among individuals <65yo, diabetes accounted for 19-30% of the associations between obesity and COVID-19 illness severity. Among patients ≥65yo, having a BMI <18.5 was a risk factor for mortality regardless of diabetes history. CONCLUSION: Our findings have clinical implications in documenting which patients may be at elevated risk for adverse outcomes. More in-depth prospective studies are needed to capture how glycemic regulation may influence prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet ; 399(10335): 1618-1624, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, omicron, appears to be less severe than delta. We aim to quantify the differences in symptom prevalence, risk of hospital admission, and symptom duration among the vaccinated population. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal observational study, we collected data from participants who were self-reporting test results and symptoms in the ZOE COVID app (previously known as the COVID Symptoms Study App). Eligible participants were aged 16-99 years, based in the UK, with a body-mass index between 15 and 55 kg/m2, had received at least two doses of any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, were symptomatic, and logged a positive symptomatic PCR or lateral flow result for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period. The primary outcome was the likelihood of developing a given symptom (of the 32 monitored in the app) or hospital admission within 7 days before or after the positive test in participants infected during omicron prevalence compared with those infected during delta prevalence. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2021, and Jan 17, 2022, we identified 63 002 participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and reported symptoms in the ZOE app. These patients were matched 1:1 for age, sex, and vaccination dose, across two periods (June 1 to Nov 27, 2021, delta prevalent at >70%; n=4990, and Dec 20, 2021, to Jan 17, 2022, omicron prevalent at >70%; n=4990). Loss of smell was less common in participants infected during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (16·7% vs 52·7%, odds ratio [OR] 0·17; 95% CI 0·16-0·19, p<0·001). Sore throat was more common during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (70·5% vs 60·8%, 1·55; 1·43-1·69, p<0·001). There was a lower rate of hospital admission during omicron prevalence than during delta prevalence (1·9% vs 2·6%, OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·57-0·98, p=0·03). INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of symptoms that characterise an omicron infection differs from those of the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant, apparently with less involvement of the lower respiratory tract and reduced probability of hospital admission. Our data indicate a shorter period of illness and potentially of infectiousness which should impact work-health policies and public health advice. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, ZOE, National Institute for Health Research, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitals , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(7): 939-950, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is limited information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed health behaviors among cancer patients. We examined changes in exercise behaviors since the pandemic and identified characteristics associated with these changes among cancer patients. METHODS: Cancer patients (n = 1,210) completed a survey from August to September 2020 to assess COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in health behaviors and psychosocial factors. Patients were categorized into three groups: exercising less, exercising did not change, and exercising more. Patient characteristics were compared by exercise groups. RESULTS: One-third of the patients reported a decreased amount of regular exercise, while 10% reported exercising more during the pandemic. Patients who exercised less were more likely to be unemployed/retired and have poor health status and psychosocial stressors such as disruptions in daily life while less likely to be former smokers (all p < 0.05). In contrast, patients who exercised more were younger, had stage IV diagnosis, and also reported disruptions in daily life (all p < 0.05). Patients who were living in rural areas were also more likely not to experience changes in exercise habits (all p < 0.05), although rural-urban status was not identified as a strong predictor. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of cancer patients experienced changes in exercise habits, especially exercising less, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, employment status, tumor stage, health status, smoking status, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in exercise behaviors. Our results highlight the importance of promoting physical activity guidelines for cancer survivorship during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help improve the identification of cancer patients susceptible to exercising less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Smoking/psychology
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 880190, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809409

ABSTRACT

T-cells specifically bind antigens to induce adaptive immune responses using highly specific molecular recognition, and a diverse T-cell repertoire with expansion of antigen-specific clones can indicate robust immune responses after infection or vaccination. For patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a spectrum of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases usually requiring immunomodulatory treatment, the T-cell response has not been well characterized. Understanding the patient factors that result in strong vaccination responses is critical to guiding vaccination schedules and identifying mechanisms of T-cell responses in IBD and other immune-mediated conditions. Here we used T-cell receptor sequencing to show that T-cell responses in an IBD cohort were influenced by demographic and immune factors, relative to a control cohort of health care workers (HCWs). Subjects were sampled at the time of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and longitudinally afterwards; TCR Vß gene repertoires were sequenced and analyzed for COVID-19-specific clones. We observed significant differences in the overall strength of the T-cell response by age and vaccine type. We further stratified the T-cell response into Class-I- and Class-II-specific responses, showing that Ad26.COV2.S vector vaccine induced Class-I-biased T-cell responses, whereas mRNA vaccine types led to different responses, with mRNA-1273 vaccine inducing a more Class-I-deficient T-cell response compared to BNT162b2. Finally, we showed that these T-cell patterns were consistent with antibody levels from the same patients. Our results account for the surprising success of vaccination in nominally immuno-compromised IBD patients, while suggesting that a subset of IBD patients prone to deficiencies in T-cell response may warrant enhanced booster protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
8.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(7): 1130-1133, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784351

ABSTRACT

T-cell and antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease patients are poorly correlated. T-cell responses are preserved by most biologic therapies, but augmented by anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment. While anti-TNF therapy blunts the antibody response, cellular immunity after vaccination is robust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vaccination
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 801805, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776000

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to impact long-standing efforts to increase adherence to cancer screening guidelines. Healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced significant hardship, but generally have greater access to preventive services, making them a particularly relevant population in which to understand cancer screening behaviors during the pandemic. We report data from 794 HCWs enrolled in the NCI-funded Serological Sciences Network for Coronavirus Associations and Longitudinal Evaluation Study from December 2020 to April 2021. Participants reported lifestyle and screening behaviors during relevant look-back periods which included the pandemic timeframe. Among women between the ages of 40 and 74, 25.7% were overdue for mammographic breast cancer screening. Among participants 50-75 years old, 38.9% were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. The proportion over-due varied according to race/ethnicity. Lifetime low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening among HCWs age 50-80 years who were smokers was 10.9%. Strategies to address screening disruptions are needed to minimize the impact of later stage of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
10.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many facets of life. We evaluated pandemic-related health care experiences, COVID-19 prevention behaviors and measures, health behaviors, and psychosocial outcomes among rural and urban cancer patients. METHODS: Among 1,472 adult cancer patients, who visited Huntsman Cancer Institute in the past 4 years and completed a COVID-19 survey (August-September 2020), we assessed the impact of the pandemic on medical appointments, prevention/health behaviors, and psychosocial factors, stratified by urbanicity. FINDINGS: Mean age was 61 years, with 52% female, 97% non-Hispanic White, and 27% were residing in rural areas. Rural versus urban patients were more likely to be older, not employed, uninsured, former/current smokers, consume alcohol, and have pandemic-related changes/cancellations in surgery appointments (all P<.05). Changes/cancellations in other health care access (eg, doctor's visits) were also common, particularly among urban patients. Urban versus rural patients were more likely to socially distance, use masks and hand sanitizer, and experience changes in exercise habits and in their daily lives (all P<.05). Less social interaction and financial stress were common among cancer patients but did not differ by urbanicity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial impact on cancer patients, with several challenges specific to rural patients. This comprehensive study provides unique insights into the first 6 months of COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences and continuity of care among rural and urban cancer patients predominantly from Utah. Further research is needed to better characterize the pandemic's short- and long-term effects on rural and urban cancer patients and appropriate interventions.

11.
Cancer Res ; 81(24): 6273-6280, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582873

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine-induced immune responses in patients with cancer are needed to optimize clinical care. In a prospective cohort study of 366 (291 vaccinated) patients, we measured antibody levels [anti-spike (IgG-(S-RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin] at three time points. Antibody level trajectories and frequency of breakthrough infections were evaluated by tumor type and timing of treatment relative to vaccination. IgG-(S-RBD) at peak response (median = 42 days after dose 2) was higher (P = 0.002) and remained higher after 4 to 6 months (P = 0.003) in patients receiving mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2. Patients with solid tumors attained higher peak levels (P = 0.001) and sustained levels after 4 to 6 months (P < 0.001) compared with those with hematologic malignancies. B-cell targeted treatment reduced peak (P = 0.001) and sustained antibody responses (P = 0.003). Solid tumor patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors before vaccination had lower sustained antibody levels than those who received treatment after vaccination (P = 0.043). Two (0.69%) vaccinated and one (1.9%) unvaccinated patient had severe COVID-19 illness during follow-up. Our study shows variation in sustained antibody responses across cancer populations receiving various therapeutic modalities, with important implications for vaccine booster timing and patient selection. SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term studies of immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer are needed to inform evidence-based guidelines for booster vaccinations and to tailor sequence and timing of vaccinations to elicit improved humoral responses.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/standards , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
12.
SSM Qual Res Health ; 2: 100033, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562027

ABSTRACT

Promotoras/promotores (i.e., community health workers) are uniquely positioned to provide much needed COVID-19 education and outreach in Latino communities, particularly in areas with disparities in vaccination rates. This study used qualitative methods to explore promotoras perspectives on COVID-19 vaccines, with a focus on understanding how vaccine knowledge and viewpoints among Latino communities can formulate recommendations to improve uptake of vaccination. Promotoras (N=22) were recruited to participate in semi-structured focus groups conducted virtually. Reflexive thematic analysis identified three overarching themes: (1) prevalence of misinformation (related to lack of trustworthy information, mistrust in the government, immigration status concerns, and conspiracy theories); (2) hesitancy (related to health concerns and eligibility confusion); and (3) recommendations for improving vaccine uptake. Delays in vaccination were not strictly due to doubts or fears but were also related to access barriers. The themes provide insight into the Latino communities' perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines and reasons why some remain unvaccinated. Promotoras' perspectives are integral to the development of strategies and approaches to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, uptake, and implementation among underserved communities.

13.
Prev Med ; 153: 106860, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525994

ABSTRACT

Despite demonstrated efficacy of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), widespread hesitancy to vaccination persists. Improved knowledge regarding frequency, severity, and duration of vaccine-associated symptoms may help reduce hesitancy. In this prospective observational study, we studied 1032 healthcare workers who received both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine and completed post-vaccine symptom surveys both after dose 1 and after dose 2. We defined appreciable post-vaccine symptoms as those of at least moderate severity and lasting at least 2 days. We found that symptoms were more frequent following the second vaccine dose than the first (74% vs. 60%, P < 0.001), with >80% of all symptoms resolving within 2 days. The most common symptom was injection site pain, followed by fatigue and malaise. Overall, 20% of participants experienced appreciable symptoms after dose 1 and 30% after dose 2. In multivariable analyses, female sex was associated with greater odds of appreciable symptoms after both dose 1 (OR, 95% CI 1.73, 1.19-2.51) and dose 2 (1.76, 1.28-2.42). Prior COVID-19 was also associated with appreciable symptoms following dose 1, while younger age and history of hypertension were associated with appreciable symptoms after dose 2. We conclude that most post-vaccine symptoms are reportedly mild and last <2 days. Appreciable post-vaccine symptoms are associated with female sex, prior COVID-19, younger age, and hypertension. This information can aid clinicians in advising patients on the safety and expected symptomatology associated with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
14.
Cancer Res ; 81(24): 6273-6280, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511545

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine-induced immune responses in patients with cancer are needed to optimize clinical care. In a prospective cohort study of 366 (291 vaccinated) patients, we measured antibody levels [anti-spike (IgG-(S-RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin] at three time points. Antibody level trajectories and frequency of breakthrough infections were evaluated by tumor type and timing of treatment relative to vaccination. IgG-(S-RBD) at peak response (median = 42 days after dose 2) was higher (P = 0.002) and remained higher after 4 to 6 months (P = 0.003) in patients receiving mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2. Patients with solid tumors attained higher peak levels (P = 0.001) and sustained levels after 4 to 6 months (P < 0.001) compared with those with hematologic malignancies. B-cell targeted treatment reduced peak (P = 0.001) and sustained antibody responses (P = 0.003). Solid tumor patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors before vaccination had lower sustained antibody levels than those who received treatment after vaccination (P = 0.043). Two (0.69%) vaccinated and one (1.9%) unvaccinated patient had severe COVID-19 illness during follow-up. Our study shows variation in sustained antibody responses across cancer populations receiving various therapeutic modalities, with important implications for vaccine booster timing and patient selection. SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term studies of immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer are needed to inform evidence-based guidelines for booster vaccinations and to tailor sequence and timing of vaccinations to elicit improved humoral responses.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/standards , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101029, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited prior investigation of the combined influence of personal and community-level socioeconomic factors on racial/ethnic disparities in individual risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis nested within a prospective cohort of 2,102,364 participants from March 29, 2020 in the United States (US) and March 24, 2020 in the United Kingdom (UK) through December 02, 2020 via the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application. We examined the contribution of community-level deprivation using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (NDI) and the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) to observe racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04331509. FINDINGS: Compared with non-Hispanic White participants, the risk for a positive COVID-19 test was increased in the US for non-Hispanic Black (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.47) and Hispanic participants (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.33-1.52) and in the UK for Black (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), South Asian (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49), and Middle Eastern participants (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61). This elevated risk was associated with living in more deprived communities according to the NDI/IMD. After accounting for downstream mediators of COVID-19 risk, community-level deprivation still mediated 16.6% and 7.7% of the excess risk in Black compared to White participants in the US and the UK, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Our results illustrate the critical role of social determinants of health in the disproportionate COVID-19 risk experienced by racial and ethnic minorities.

17.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 166-173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159428

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early reports highlighted racial/ethnic disparities in the severity of COVID-19 seen across the USA; the extent to which these disparities have persisted over time remains unclear. Our research objective was to understand temporal trends in racial/ethnic variation in severity of COVID-19 illness presenting over time. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using longitudinal data from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, a high-volume health system in Southern California. We studied patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 illness from 4 March 2020 through 5 December 2020. Our primary outcome was COVID-19 severity of illness among hospitalised patients, assessed by racial/ethnic group status. We defined overall illness severity as an ordinal outcome: hospitalisation but no intensive care unit (ICU) admission; admission to the ICU but no intubation; and intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 1584 patients with COVID-19 with available demographic and clinical data were included. Hispanic/Latinx compared with non-Hispanic white patients had higher odds of experiencing more severe illness among hospitalised patients (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.22) and this disparity persisted over time. During the initial 2 months of the pandemic, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to suffer severe illness than non-Hispanic whites (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.78); this disparity improved by May, only to return later in the pandemic. CONCLUSION: In our patient sample, the severity of observed COVID-19 illness declined steadily over time, but these clinical improvements were not seen evenly across racial/ethnic groups; greater illness severity continues to be experienced among Hispanic/Latinx patients.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043584, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and the factors associated with seroprevalence across a diverse cohort of healthcare workers. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of healthcare workers, including SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and participant questionnaires. SETTINGS: A multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County. PARTICIPANTS: A diverse and unselected population of adults (n=6062) employed in a multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County, including individuals with direct patient contact and others with non-patient-oriented work functions. MAIN OUTCOMES: Using Bayesian and multivariate analyses, we estimated seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity and antibody levels, including pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics; potential COVID-19 illness-related exposures; and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: We observed a seroprevalence rate of 4.1%, with anosmia as the most prominently associated self-reported symptom (OR 11.04, p<0.001) in addition to fever (OR 2.02, p=0.002) and myalgias (OR 1.65, p=0.035). After adjusting for potential confounders, seroprevalence was also associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.98, p=0.001) and African-American race (OR 2.02, p=0.027) as well as contact with a COVID-19-diagnosed individual in the household (OR 5.73, p<0.001) or clinical work setting (OR 1.76, p=0.002). Importantly, African-American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with antibody positivity even after adjusting for personal COVID-19 diagnosis status, suggesting the contribution of unmeasured structural or societal factors. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The demographic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among our healthcare workers underscore the importance of exposure sources beyond the workplace. The size and diversity of our study population, combined with robust survey and modelling techniques, provide a vibrant picture of the demographic factors, exposures and symptoms that can identify individuals with susceptibility as well as potential to mount an immune response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-219604

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Software , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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