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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki Disease (KD) and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) are pediatric diseases characterized by systemic inflammation and vascular injury, potentially leading to coronary artery lesions (CALs). Data on vascular injury occurring during acute COVID-19 (AC19) in children are still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate endothelial injury in KD-, MIS-C- and AC19-dosing circulating endothelial cells (CECs). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective study. CECs were enumerated by CellSearch technology through the immunomagnetic capture of CD146-positive cells from whole blood. RESULTS: We enrolled 9 KD, 20 MIS-C and 10 AC19. During the acute stage, the AC19 and KD patients had higher CECs levels than the MIS-C patients. From the acute to subacute phase, a significant CEC increase was observed in the KD patients, while a mild decrease was detected in the MIS-C patients. Cellular clusters/syncytia were more common in the KD patients. No correlation between CECs and CALs were found in the MIS-C patients. The incidence of CALs in the KD group was too low to investigate this correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a possible role of CECs as biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in KD and MIS-C and different mechanisms of vascular injury in these diseases. Further larger studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Vascular System Injuries , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Child , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can trigger cardiovascular manifestations potentially requiring an intensive treatment and defining a new entity named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), whose features partially overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD). A cross-sectional study including all diagnoses of MIS-C and KD from April 2020 to May 2021 in our metropolitan area was conducted evaluating clinical, laboratory (including immunological response, cytokines, and markers of myocardial damage), and cardiac (coronary and non-coronary) features at onset of the diseases. Evolution of ventricular dysfunction, valve regurgitations, and coronary lesions was documented. The severity of the disease was also considered based on the need for inotropic support and ICU admission. Twenty-four MIS-C were diagnosed (14 boys, median age 82 months): 13/24 cases (54.17%) presented left ventricular dysfunction, 12/24 (50%) required inotropic support, and 10/24 (41.67%) developed coronary anomalies (CALs). All patients received steroids and IVIG at a median time of 5 days (IQR1:4, IQR3:6.5) from onset of fever and heart function normalized 6 days (IQR1: 5, IQR3: 7) after therapy, while CALs persisted in one. One patient (12.5%) required infliximab because of refractory disease and still presented CALs 18 days after therapy. During the same study period, 15 KD were diagnosed: none had ventricular dysfunction, while 7/15 (46.67%) developed CALs. Three out of 15 patients (20%) still presented CALs 46 days from onset. Compared to KD, MIS-C pts have significantly higher IL8 and similar lymphocytes subpopulations. Despite a more severe presentation and initial cardiac findings compared to KD, the myocardial injury in MIS-C has a rapid response to immunomodulatory treatment (median time 6 days), in terms of ventricular function, valve regurgitations, and troponin. Incidence of CALs is similar at onset, but it tends to regress in most of the cases of MIS-C differently than in KD where CALs persist in up to 40% in the subacute stage after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 714-721, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have a milder clinical course than adults. We describe the spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations during a COVID-19 outbreak in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed, including all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD), myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from February to April 2020. KD patients were compared with those diagnosed before the epidemic. RESULTS: KD: 8 patients (6/8 boys, all negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]): complete presentation in 5/8, 7/8 immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders, and 3/8 showed transient coronary lesions (CALs). Myocarditis: one 5-year-old girl negative for SARS-CoV-2 and positive for parvovirus B19. She responded to IVIG. MIS-C: 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive boys (3 patients with positive swab and serology and 1 patient with negative swab and positive serology): 3 presented myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion, and 1 developed multicoronary aneurysms and hyperinflammation; all responded to treatment. The fourth boy had mitral and aortic regurgitation that rapidly regressed after steroids. CONCLUSIONS: KD, myocarditis, and MIS-C were distinguishable cardiovascular manifestations. KD did not show a more aggressive form compared with previous years: coronary involvement was frequent but always transient. MIS-C and myocarditis rapidly responded to treatment without cardiac sequelae despite high markers of myocardial injury at the onset, suggesting a myocardial depression due to systemic inflammation rather than focal necrosis. Evidence of actual or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented only in patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Children (Basel) ; 8(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211900

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Co-occurrence of asthma and obesity may be due to common pathogenetic factors including exposure to air pollutants and tobacco smoking, Western diet, and low Vitamin D levels. Lung growth and dysanapsis phenomenon in asthmatic obese children play a role in impaired respiratory function which appears to be different than in adults. Genes involved in both asthma and obesity have been identified, though a gene-by-environment interaction has not been properly investigated yet. The identification of modifiable environmental factors influencing gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms may change the natural history of both diseases. Another important pediatric respiratory condition associated with obesity is Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB), especially Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). OSAS and obesity are linked by a bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. In OSAS pathogenesis, obesity's role appears to be mainly due to mechanical factors leading to an increase of respiratory work at night-time. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSAS pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. To prevent obesity and its complications, family education and precocious lifestyle changes are critical. A healthy diet may lead to an improved quality of life in obese children suffering from respiratory diseases. The present review aimed to investigate the links between obesity, asthma and OSAS, focusing on the available evidence and looking for future research fields.

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