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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140042

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance represents a serious threat for global health, causing an unacceptable burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. In particular, in 2017, carbapenem-resistant organisms were listed by the WHO among the group of pathogens for which novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Fortunately, several drugs and combinations have been introduced in recent years to treat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. However, a correct use of these molecules is needed to preserve their efficacy. In the present paper, we will provide an overview on the epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance of the most common MDR Gram-negative bacteria, proposing a treatment algorithm for the management of infections due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria based on the most recent clinical evidence.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141412

ABSTRACT

Crenotherapy is recognized as being effective in patients with osteoarthritis of the spine, but to date there is no indication if it is effective for patients who are overweight or obese. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sulphurous crenotherapy on pain and disability in overweight/obese subjects affected by chronic low back pain from spine osteoarthritis. Forty-three patients (63 ± 8.8 years) affected by chronic low back pain from lumbar spine osteoarthritis were enrolled in this study. Subjects were treated with 2 weeks of sulphurous creno-treatments. Subjective pain was measured by a numerical rating scale score (NRS), and functional mobility of the lumbar spine was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after crenotherapy. Both crenotherapy groups (normal weight: A1; overweight/obese: A2) experienced significantly improved NRS and ODI scores (A1: p < 0.001 and p = 0.001; A2: p = 0.001 and p = 0.001). At end of the treatment, significant improvements were observed as a result of the crenotherapy in overweight/obese subjects in terms of pain reduction measured with NRS (p = 0.03) and in terms of function mobility of the lumbar spine measured with ODI (p = 0.006). This study highlights the beneficial effect of sulphurous crenotherapy on the painful symptomatology and disability in both normal weight and overweight/obese patients suffering from chronic low back pain associated with lumbar spine osteoarthritis.

3.
J Chemother ; : 1-14, 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102273

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, now approved by Regulatory Agencies for COVID-19 treatment. RDV is associated with improvements in clinical outcomes, but no conclusive studies have shown an effect in reducing mortality. This study aimed to carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis to investigate whether RDV can significantly modify the outcome of COVID-19 patients evaluating its effects on mortality, length of stay, time to clinical improvement and need for oxygen supplementation. No significant improvement in terms of survival in patients treated with standard therapy (ST)+RDV as compared to ST alone (P = 0.24) was found. The duration of oxygen support was significantly lower in patients treated with ST + RDV compared with ST alone (P = 0.03). Further investigations should be planned to assess the real impact of RDV in the management of COVID-19 patients.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 168, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076248

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities are highly prevalent diseases that may add to any other possible health problem commonly affecting the pediatric age. Uncertainties may arise concerning drug dosing when children with obesity need pharmacologic therapies. In general, in pediatric practice, there is a tendency to adapt drug doses to a child's total body weight. However, this method does not consider the pharmacological impact that a specific drug can have under a two-fold point of view, that is, across various age and size groups as well. Moreover, there is a need for a therapeutic approach, as much as possible tailored considering relevant interacting aspects, such as modification in metabolomic profile, drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Taking into account the peculiar differences between children with overweight/obesity and those who are normal weight, the drug dosage in the case of obesity, cannot be empirically determined solely by the per kg criterion. In this narrative review, we examine the pros and cons of several drug dosing methods used when dealing with children who are affected also by obesity, focusing on specific aspects of some of the drugs most frequently prescribed in real-world practice by general pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/drug therapy
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1008061, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059839
6.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956030

ABSTRACT

AIM: "Antimicrobial stewardship" (AMS) is defined as a healthcare-system-wide approach to promoting and monitoring the judicious use of antimicrobials to preserve their future effectiveness. Therefore, we structured an observational study to monitor the hospital trend of antibiotic consumption and related expenditure before the COVID-19 pandemic and to evaluate how much AMS could affect this trend. METHODS: The research covered the antibiotic prescriptions at the University Hospital (U.H.) "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, Italy, comparing data on the therapies prescribed from 1 January to 31 December 2017 (27,384 patients) with those collected during the same period in 2019 (27,047 patients). RESULTS: Unlike national data, our results highlighted a decreasing trend in the consumption of antibiotics that did not concern only carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, but also the third-generation cephalosporins. Noteworthily, there was also a reduction in 2019 compared with 2017 in the consumption of colistin, an antibiotic towards which an increase in bacterial resistance in animals has been found nationally. In agreement with the national data, our research confirms a trend of an increase (+3.7%) in the total antibiotic consumption corresponding to more than 26% and 29% reductions in the total and therapy per-day costs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a positive impact of the AMS at the University Hospital "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona".

7.
J Pers Med ; 12(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887555

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, male sex is a risk factor for severe disease and death, and the reasons for these clinical discrepancies are largely unknown. The aim of this work is to study the influence of sex on the course of infection and the differences in prognostic markers between genders in COVID-19 patients. Our cohort consisted of 64 adult patients (n = 34 men and n = 30 women) with PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further, a group of patients was characterized by a different severity degree (n = 8 high- and n = 8 low-grade individuals for both male and female patients). As expected, the serum concentrations of LDH, fibrinogen, CRP, and leucocyte count in men were significantly higher than in females. When serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-2, IP-10 and IL-4 and chemokines like MCP-1, were measured with multiplex ELISA, no significant differences between male and female patients were found. In COVID-19 patients, we recently attributed a new prognostic value to BPIFB4, a natural defensin against dysregulation of the immune responses. Here, we clarify that BPIFB4 is inversely related to the disease degree in men but not in women. Indeed, higher levels of BPIFB4 characterized low-grade male patients compared to high-grade ones. On the contrary, no significant difference was reported between low-grade female patients and high-grade ones. In conclusion, the identification of BPIFB4 as a biomarker of mild/moderate disease and its sex-specific activity would open an interesting field for research to underpin gender-related susceptibility to the disease.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887959

ABSTRACT

One of the characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italy is the significant regional difference in terms of lethality and mortality. These geographical variances were clear in the first wave and confirmed in the second one as well. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between regional differences in COVID-19 mortality and different regional care models, by retrospectively analyzing the association between the Italian COVID-19 deaths and the number of hospital beds, long-term care facilities, general practitioners (GPs), and the health expenditure per capita. The period considered was from 1 March 2020 to 1 March 2021. The number of hospital beds (p < 0.0001) and the number of GPs (p = 0.0094) significantly predicted the COVID-19 death rate. The Italian regions with a higher number of hospital beds and a lower number of GPs showed a higher number of deaths. Multivariate analyses confirmed the results. The Italian regions with a higher amount of centralized healthcare, as represented by the number of hospital beds, experienced a higher number of deaths, while the regions with greater community support, as exemplified by the number of the GPs, faced higher survival. These results suggest the need for a change in the current healthcare system organization.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 909936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712091

ABSTRACT

Background: Levodopa (LD) is the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Unfortunately, prolonged use of LD leads to complications, mainly motor/non-motor fluctuations (MNMF) and dyskinesias (DYS). Women seem more prone to develop such LD-related complications. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of prospective studies examining gender-related predictors of MNMF and DYS. Among several factors, which concur with a very complex scenario, changes in LD pharmacokinetics influence the drug's effectiveness. The present study aimed to assess gender-related differences in LD pharmacokinetics in patients with PD at their first-ever intake of LD. Materials and Methods: This is a multicentric study enrolling patients with PD, who were LD-naïve and received a single dose of LD/benserazide (100/25 mg) formulation. All participants gave their written informed consent, and the study was approved by the local Ethics Committees. To measure plasma LD concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax, Tmax, t 1/2), fasting blood samples were collected before drug intake and then at 8-time points until 260 min. LD concentrations were measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of the parameters. Results: Thirty-five patients (16 women and 19 men) were consecutively enrolled. Area under curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were significantly higher in women than men (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0014, respectively). No statistically significant difference was found regarding Tmax and t 1/2. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that female sex (ß = 1.559116, 95% CI 0.8314479 2.286785; p < 0.0001) and body mass index (BMI) (ß = -0.0970631, 95% CI -0.1733004 -0.0208258; p = 0.014) significantly predicted AUC. Only female sex significantly predicted Cmax (ß = 1,582.499, 95% CI 731.581 2,433.417; p = 0.001). Moreover, only BMI significantly predicted t 1/2 (ß = 0.0756267, 95% CI 0.0143407 0.1369126; p = 0.017). Stratifying by gender, BMI was confirmed to significantly predict t 1/2 in women (ß = 0.1300486, 95% CI 0.0172322 0.242865; p = 0.027), but not in men. Conclusion: This study provides novel insights on gender differences in LD pharmacokinetics, possibly contributing to the later development of motor complications and dyskinesia in PD.

11.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631233

ABSTRACT

Exercise training (ET) is a natural activator of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a stress-sensor able to increase the endogenous antioxidant system. SIRT1 activators include polyphenols and vitamins, the antioxidant properties of which are well-known. Antioxidant supplements are used to improve athletic performance. However, they might blunt ET-related benefits. Middle-distance runners (MDR) taking (MDR-S) or not taking antioxidant supplements (MDR-NoS) were compared with each other and with sedentary subjects (CTR) to evaluate the ET effects on SIRT1 levels and oxidative stress, and to investigate whether an exogenous source of antioxidants could interfere with such effects. Thirty-two MDR and 14 CTR were enrolled. MDR-S took 240 mg vitamin C and 15 mg vitamin E together with mineral salts. SIRT1 mRNA and activity were measured in PBMCs. Total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were determined in plasma. MDR showed higher levels of SIRT1 mRNA (p = 0.0387) and activity (p = 0.0055) than did CTR. MDR-NoS also showed higher levels than did MDR-S without reaching statistical significance. SIRT1 activity was higher (p = 0.0012) in MDR-NoS (1909 ± 626) than in MDR-S (1276 ± 474). TOS did not differ among the groups, while MDR showed higher TEAC levels than did CTR (2866 ± 581 vs. 2082 ± 560, p = 0.0001) as did MDR-S (2784 ± 643) and MDR-NoS (2919 ± 551) (MDR-S vs. CTR, p = 0.0007 and MDR-NoS vs. CTR, p = 0.003). TEAC (ß = 0.4488356, 95% CI 0.2074645 0.6902067; p < 0.0001) and the MDR-NoS group (ß = 744.6433, 95% CI 169.9954 1319.291; p= 0.012) predicted SIRT1 activity levels. Antioxidant supplementation seems to hinder the role of ET as a natural activator of SIRT1.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Sirtuin 1 , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Exercise/physiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Sirtuin 1/genetics
12.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35455729

ABSTRACT

The 2020 pandemic for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection has required strict measures for virus spreading reduction, including stay-at-home orders. To explore gender differences in mental health status after the first wave of the pandemic and in teleworking, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of emotions and coping strategies for facing the pandemic stratified by gender using data from an online survey conducted at the University of Salerno, Italy, between 11 May and 10 June 2020. The online questionnaire included 31 items on demographics, teleworking, COVID-19 emergency, and gender-based violence, with multiple-choice answers for some questions. Females felt significantly sadder (p = 0.0019), lonelier (p = 0.0058), more fearful (p = 0.0003), and more insecure (p = 0.0129) than males, experienced more sleep disorders (p = 0.0030), and were more likely to sanitize surfaces compared to males (p < 0.0001). Our results show gender differences in awareness and concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic that differently influenced mood, as females were more frightened and worried than males.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227970, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438752

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, urgent clinical management of patients has mainly included drugs currently administered for other diseases, referred to as repositioned drugs. As a result, some of these drugs have proved to be not only ineffective but also harmful because of adverse events associated with drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Objective: To identify DDIs that led to adverse clinical outcomes and/or adverse drug reactions in patients with COVID-19 by systematically reviewing the literature and assessing the value of drug interaction checkers in identifying such events. Evidence Review: After identification of the drugs used during the COVID-19 pandemic, the drug interaction checkers Drugs.com, COVID-19 Drug Interactions, LexiComp, Medscape, and WebMD were consulted to analyze theoretical DDI-associated adverse events in patients with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022. A systematic literature review was performed by searching the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane for articles published from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022, to retrieve articles describing actual adverse events associated with DDIs. The drug interaction checkers were consulted again to evaluate their potential to assess such events. Findings: The DDIs identified in the reviewed articles involved 46 different drugs. In total, 575 DDIs for 58 drug pairs (305 associated with at least 1 adverse drug reaction) were reported. The drugs most involved in DDIs were lopinavir and ritonavir. Of the 6917 identified studies, 20 met the inclusion criteria. These studies, which enrolled 1297 patients overall, reported 115 DDI-related adverse events: 15 (26%) were identifiable by all tools analyzed, 29 (50%) were identifiable by at least 1 of them, and 14 (24%) remained nonidentifiable. Conclusions and Relevance: The main finding of this systematic review is that the use of drug interaction checkers could have identified several DDI-associated adverse drug reactions, including severe and life-threatening events. Both the interactions between the drugs used to treat COVID-19 and between the COVID-19 drugs and those already used by the patients should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
14.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268499

ABSTRACT

AIM: Despite huge efforts in developing specific drugs, vaccination represents the only effective strategy against COVID-19. Efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines were established during clinical trials. Nonetheless, it is very important to perform continuous surveillance. This observational study aimed to report potential Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) following the first dose of two different COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and AZD1222. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects who underwent vaccination at the vaccine center of the University Hospital of Salerno, Italy, were interviewed using an ad hoc questionnaire. AZD-vac group (n = 175) who received AZD1222 had a higher number of AEFI than the BNT-vac group (n = 1613) who received BNT162b2 (83% vs. 42%). The most frequent AEFI associated with AZD1222 and BNT162b2 were fever and pain at the injection site, respectively. The AZD-vac group used drugs to contrast AEFI more frequently than the BNT-vac group. In the BNT-vac group, there was a higher incidence of AEFI in women than in men (26.2% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.01), while no gender-related difference was observed in the AZD-vac group. CONCLUSIONS: AZD1222 and BNT162b2 vaccines show a good safety profile. Based on our results and literature data, there are no reasons to justify the reluctance that persists towards immunization.

15.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly status is steadily increasing among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a potent P2Y12 receptor inhibitor is the cornerstone of treatment to prevent recurrent thrombotic complications in patients with ACS. However, DAPT in older patients is challenged by a concurrent heightened risk of ischemia and bleeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of a lower dose of ticagrelor (60 mg twice daily) among elderly patients during the early phase of ACS. STUDY DESIGN: PLINY THE ELDER (PLatelet INhibition with two different doses of potent P2y12 inhibitors in THE ELDERly population) (NCT04739384) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover trial to evaluate the non-inferiority of a lower dose of ticagrelor (60 mg twice daily) compared with a standard dose (90 mg twice daily) among elderly patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 50 patients, aged 75 years or more, with indication to potent P2Y12 receptor inhibitors will be randomized within 3 days from PCI for the index ACS. Patients with indication to oral anticoagulant therapy, treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, or active bleeding will be excluded. The primary endpoint is platelet reactivity determined by P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) (VerifyNow, Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA) after treatment with ticagrelor 60 or 90 mg twice daily for 14 days. Secondary endpoints will include other pharmacodynamic tests of ADP-induced aggregation (light transmittance aggregometry and multiple electrode aggregometry) and determination of pharmacokinetic profile (plasma levels of ticagrelor and its metabolite AR-C124910XX) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS: The PLINY THE ELDER trial will determine whether a lower dose of ticagrelor confers non-inferior platelet inhibition compared with the standard dose in the early phase of ACS among elderly patients undergoing PCI, informing future clinical investigation.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829645

ABSTRACT

Hydropinotherapy is a salus per aquam (Spa) treatment suitable as a complementary approach to treat several diseases, which strongly affect the quality of life (QoL). Hydropinotherapy with sulphurous mineral water exerts benefits thanks to components, such as hydrogen sulphide, which is considered mainly responsible for antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects. Such properties, linked from each other, could favour an improvement in patients' QoL. However, data on humans are scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether a cycle of sulphurous hydropinotherapy was able to modify plasma levels of glucose and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and improve QoL in patients suffering from several chronic disorders. A prospective, observational study involved patients with gastrointestinal diseases who received a prescription of a cycle of sulphurous hydropinotherapy (S-HT). Age- and sex-matched control group was enrolled (No S-HT). Glycaemia and plasma concentration of ROMs were measured in all subjects. The impact of spa treatment on the QoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 Health Status Survey questionnaire (SF-36). All parameters were measured at baseline and at the end of a 2-week treatment. Between the groups, no differences were found in glycaemia and ROMs at baseline. In the S-HT group, a reduction in glycaemia and ROMs, both in respect to baseline (p = 0.005 and p = 0.031, respectively) and to control group, as shown by the delta value calculated, as the difference between the values at 2 weeks and baseline (p = 0.0009 and p = 0.0001, respectively). In the S-HT, delta ROMs was the best predictor of delta glycaemia with a direct linear correlation (beta = 0.559, 95% CI 0.471 to 0.647, p < 0.0001). In the S-HT, the SF-36 total score was improved both when compared with baseline (p = 0.002) and with No S-HT (p = 0.001). Sulphurous hydropinotherapy induces a decrease in glycaemia and ROM levels, also ameliorating the patients' QoL. Therefore, it could be considered a useful complementary therapeutic approach.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681678

ABSTRACT

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic system where nontumor and cancer cells intercommunicate through soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). The TME in pancreatic cancer (PC) is critical for its aggressiveness and the annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been identified as one of the oncogenic elements. Previously, we demonstrated that the autocrine/paracrine activities of extracellular ANXA1 depend on its presence in EVs. Here, we show that the complex ANXA1/EVs modulates the macrophage polarization further contributing to cancer progression. The EVs isolated from wild type (WT) and ANXA1 knock-out MIA PaCa-2 cells have been administrated to THP-1 macrophages finding that ANXA1 is crucial for the acquisition of a protumor M2 phenotype. The M2 macrophages activate endothelial cells and fibroblasts to induce angiogenesis and matrix degradation, respectively. We have also found a significantly increased presence of M2 macrophage in mice tumor and liver metastasis sections previously obtained by orthotopic xenografts with WT cells. Taken together, our data interestingly suggest the relevance of ANXA1 as potential diagnostic/prognostic and/or therapeutic PC marker.


Subject(s)
Annexin A1/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Animals , Annexin A1/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Fibroblasts/physiology , Humans , Macrophage Activation , Mice , Pancreatic Neoplasms/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/physiopathology
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 173: 105848, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454035

ABSTRACT

Making gender bias visible allows to fill the gaps in knowledge and understand health records and risks of women and men. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shown a clear gender difference in health outcomes. The more severe symptoms and higher mortality in men as compared to women are likely due to sex and age differences in immune responses. Age-associated decline in sex steroid hormone levels may mediate proinflammatory reactions in older adults, thereby increasing their risk of adverse outcomes, whereas sex hormones and/or sex hormone receptor modulators may attenuate the inflammatory response and provide benefit to COVID-19 patients. While multiple pharmacological options including anticoagulants, glucocorticoids, antivirals, anti-inflammatory agents and traditional Chinese medicine preparations have been tested to treat COVID-19 patients with varied levels of evidence in terms of efficacy and safety, information on sex-targeted treatment strategies is currently limited. Women may have more benefit from COVID-19 vaccines than men, despite the occurrence of more frequent adverse effects, and long-term safety data with newly developed vectors are eagerly awaited. The prevalent inclusion of men in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with subsequent extrapolation of results to women needs to be addressed, as reinforcing sex-neutral claims into COVID-19 research may insidiously lead to increased inequities in health care. The huge worldwide effort with over 3000 ongoing RCTs of pharmacological agents should focus on improving knowledge on sex, gender and age as pillars of individual variation in drug responses and enforce appropriateness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/trends , Pharmacology, Clinical/trends , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/antagonists & inhibitors , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Humans , Pharmacology, Clinical/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , Precision Medicine/trends
19.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(8)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452168

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a widely diffused neurological disorder including a heterogeneous range of syndromes with different aetiology, severity and prognosis. Pharmacological treatments are based on the use, either in mono- or in polytherapy, of antiseizure medications (ASMs), which act at different synaptic levels, generally modifying the excitatory and/or inhibitory response through different action mechanisms. To reduce the risk of adverse effects and drug interactions, ASMs levels should be closely evaluated in biological fluids performing an appropriate Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). However, many decisions in TDM are based on the determination of the total drug concentration although measurement of the free fraction, which is not bound to plasma proteins, is becoming of ever-increasing importance since it correlates better with pharmacological and toxicological effects. Aim of this work has been to review methodological aspects concerning the evaluation of the free plasmatic fraction of some ASMs, focusing on the effect and the clinical significance that drug-protein binding has in the case of widely used drugs such as valproic acid, phenytoin, perampanel and carbamazepine. Although several validated methodologies are currently available which are effective in separating and quantifying the different forms of a drug, prospective validation studies are undoubtedly needed to better correlate, in real-world clinical contexts, pharmacokinetic monitoring to clinical outcomes.

20.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 17(1): 9-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412564

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (RDV) is an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that are active in some RNA viruses, including the Ebola virus and zoonotic coronaviruses. When severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiologic agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several investigations have assessed the potential activity of RDV in inhibiting viral replication, giving rise to hope for an effective treatment. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors describe the main investigations leading to the discovery of RDV and its subsequent development as an antiviral agent, focusing on the main clinical trials investigating its efficacy in terms of symptom resolution and mortality reduction. EXPERT OPINION: RDV is the most widely investigated antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19. This attention on RDV activity against SARS-CoV-2 is justified by promising in vitro studies, which demonstrated that RDV was able to suppress viral replication without significant toxicity. Such activity was confirmed by an investigation in an animal model and by the results of preliminary clinical investigations. Nevertheless, the efficacy of RDV in reducing mortality has not been clearly demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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