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Curr Opin Neurol ; 35(6): 728-740, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063142


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spasticity is a common sequela of brain and spinal cord injury and contributes to disability, reduces quality of life, and increases economic burden. Spasticity is still incompletely recognized and undertreated. We will provide an overview of recent published data on the definition, assessment, and prediction, therapeutic advances, with a focus on promising new approaches, and telemedicine applications for spasticity. RECENT FINDINGS: Two new definitions of spasticity have been recently proposed, but operational criteria should be developed, and test-retest and inter-rater reliability should be explored. Cannabinoids proved to be effective in spasticity in multiple sclerosis, but evidence in other types of spasticity is lacking. Botulinum neurotoxin injection is the first-line therapy for focal spasticity, and recent literature focused on optimizing its efficacy. Several pharmacological, interventional, and nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches for spasticity have been explored but low-quality evidence impedes solid conclusions on their efficacy. The recent COVID-19 pandemic yielded guidelines/recommendations for the use of telemedicine in spasticity. SUMMARY: Despite the frequency of spasticity, robust diagnostic criteria and reliable assessment scales are required. High-quality studies are needed to support the efficacy of current treatments for spasticity. Future studies should explore telemedicine tools for spasticity assessment and treatment.

COVID-19 , Spinal Cord Injuries , Humans , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Muscle Spasticity/diagnosis , Muscle Spasticity/etiology , Muscle Spasticity/therapy , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Brain