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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319848

ABSTRACT

Background: Excessive sedation has been associated with poor outcome in critically-ill patients with acute respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The on-going pandemic has seen many critically-ill COVID-19 with ARDS, yet the incidence of excessive sedation and its association to delirium in these patients has to date not been assessed. We aimed at comparing the incidence and outcome of excessive sedation and delirium in two cohorts of critically-ill patients. Methods: : This was an international, dual center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from two cohorts of critically ill patients, with and without COVID-19 disease, pertaining to two different hospital settings. Depth of sedation was monitored through processed EEG and delirium through the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU(CAM-ICU). The main outcomes were the incidence of excessive sedation and delirium between the two cohorts, and secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay and mechanical ventilation duration. Results: : Fifty-seven non -COVID-19 and 21 COVID-19 patients were included, 38(49%) of whom had ARDS. Twenty-seven(47.3%) non -COVID-19 and 11(52.3%) COVID-19 patients fulfilled the criteria for excessive sedation. Excessively sedated patients were older(p=0.034) and had delirium more frequently(p<0.001). There was a trend in excessive sedation in ARDS patients, while there was no correlation between excessive sedation and COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 with ARDS was related to delirium at the limit of significance. On adjusted analysis excessive sedation was independently related to delirium(p=0.008). Patients with delirium had longer MV duration, ICU-LOS and H-LOS. In the adjusted analysis, delirium was an independent predictor of ICU-LOS(p=0.005) and MV duration(p=0.039). SAPS II was higher in the non -COVID-19 patients when compared to COVID-19 patients. Despite this, COVID-19 patients remained ventilated for a longer period of time, had a longer ICU and H-LOS. Conclusion: Besides age, excessive sedation might represent an important risk factor for delirium in COVID-19 and non -COVID-19 critically ill patients, which may lead to an increased ICU-LOS, H-LOS and MV duration. The use of continuous EEG-based monitoring for quantification of sedation depth, along with frequent delirium assessment in critically-ill COVID-19 patients is warranted along with larger prospective trials aimed at verifying weather the use of EEG-based monitoring leads to improved outcome.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319156

ABSTRACT

Background: . COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS patients have not been established. Methods: . We performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Results: . Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi and lung retention for up to 2 hours. Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive. Conclusions: . Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration does not cause acute decompensation, and it could be related to improved survival and reduction of mechanical ventilation duration. This study supports the future performance of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous surfactant delivery.

3.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 20, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS patients have not been established. METHODS: We performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of exogenous natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. RESULTS: Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi. Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration did not cause acute decompensation, may reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation duration in COVID-19 ARDS patients. This study supports the future performance of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous sub-bronchial lavage with surfactant as treatment for patients with COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phospholipids/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , Aged , Biological Products/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Phospholipids/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Pulmonary Surfactants/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 1020-1026, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006326

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Treatment with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is frequent. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds led clinicians to deliver NIV also outside ICUs. Data about the use of NIV in COVID-19 is limited.Objectives: To describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 treated with NIV outside the ICUs. To investigate the factors associated with NIV failure (need for intubation or death).Methods: In this prospective, single-day observational study, we enrolled adult patients with COVID-19 who were treated with NIV outside the ICU from 31 hospitals in Lombardy, Italy.Results: We collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics, ventilatory management, and patient outcomes. Of 8,753 patients with COVID-19 present in the hospitals on the study day, 909 (10%) were receiving NIV outside the ICU. A majority of patients (778/909; 85%) patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was delivered by helmet in 617 (68%) patients. NIV failed in 300 patients (37.6%), whereas 498 (62.4%) patients were discharged alive without intubation. Overall mortality was 25%. NIV failure occurred in 152/284 (53%) patients with an arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio <150 mm Hg. Higher C-reactive protein and lower PaO2/FiO2 and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Conclusions: The use of NIV outside the ICUs was common in COVID-19, with a predominant use of helmet CPAP, with a rate of success >60% and close to 75% in full-treatment patients. C-reactive protein, PaO2/FiO2, and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04382235).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Hospital Mortality , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Patients' Rooms , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Cannula , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
5.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(2): 193-198, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim was to describe the incidence and risk factors of barotrauma in patients with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on invasive mechanical ventilation, during the outbreak in our region (Lombardy, Italy). METHODS: The study was an electronic survey open from March 27th to May 2nd, 2020. Patients with COVID-19 who developed barotrauma while on invasive mechanical ventilation from 61 hospitals of the COVID-19 Lombardy Intensive Care Unit network were involved. RESULTS: The response rate was 38/61 (62%). The incidence of barotrauma was 145/2041 (7.1%; 95%-CI: 6.1-8.3%). Only a few cases occurred with ventilatory settings that may be considered non-protective such as a plateau airway pressure >35 cmH2O (2/113 [2%]), a driving airway pressure >15 cmH2O (30/113 [27%]), or a tidal volume >8 mL/kg of ideal body weight and a plateau airway pressure >30 cmH2O (12/134 [9%]). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of a survey, patients with COVID-19 might be at high risk for barotrauma during invasive (and allegedly lung-protective) mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Air Pressure , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Tidal Volume , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(7): 102568, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155057

ABSTRACT

A hyperinflammatory syndrome (HIS) may cause a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. A prospective series of 100 consecutive patients admitted to the Spedali Civili University Hospital in Brescia (Italy) between March 9th and March 20th with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS requiring ventilatory support was analyzed to determine whether intravenous administration of tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody that targets the interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor, was associated with improved outcome. Tocilizumab was administered at a dosage of 8 mg/kg by two consecutive intravenous infusions 12 h apart. A third infusion was optional based on clinical response. The outcome measure was an improvement in acute respiratory failure assessed by means of the Brescia COVID Respiratory Severity Score (BCRSS 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating higher severity) at 24-72 h and 10 days after tocilizumab administration. Out of 100 treated patients (88 M, 12 F; median age: 62 years), 43 received TCZ in the intensive care unit (ICU), while 57 in the general ward as no ICU beds were available. Of these 57 patients, 37 (65%) improved and suspended noninvasive ventilation (NIV) (median BCRSS: 1 [IQR 0-2]), 7 (12%) patients remained stable in NIV, and 13 (23%) patients worsened (10 died, 3 were admitted to ICU). Of the 43 patients treated in the ICU, 32 (74%) improved (17 of them were taken off the ventilator and were discharged to the ward), 1 (2%) remained stable (BCRSS: 5) and 10 (24%) died (all of them had BCRSS≥7 before TCZ). Overall at 10 days, the respiratory condition was improved or stabilized in 77 (77%) patients, of whom 61 showed a significant clearing of diffuse bilateral opacities on chest x-ray and 15 were discharged from the hospital. Respiratory condition worsened in 23 (23%) patients, of whom 20 (20%) died. All the patients presented with lymphopenia and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, ferritin and IL-6 indicating a HIS. During the 10-day follow-up, three cases of severe adverse events were recorded: two patients developed septic shock and died, one had gastrointestinal perforation requiring urgent surgery and was alive at day 10. In conclusion, our series showed that COVID-19 pneumonia with ARDS was characterized by HIS. The response to TCZ was rapid, sustained, and associated with significant clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Crit Care ; 58: 29-33, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 that started in Hubei, China has resulted in massive strain on the healthcare infrastructure in Lombardy, Italy. The management of these patients is still evolving. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-center observational cohort study of critically ill patients infected with COVID-19. Bedside clinicians abstracted daily patient data on history, treatment, and short-term course. We describe management and a proposed severity scale for treatment used in this hospital. RESULTS: 44 patients were enrolled; with incomplete information on 11. Of the 33 studied patients, 91% were male, median age 64; 88% were overweight or obese. 45% were hypertensive, 12% had been taking an ACE-inhibitor. Noninvasive ventilation was performed on 39% of patients for part or all or their ICU stay with no provider infection. Most patients received antibiotics for pneumonia. Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm. Nine of 10 patients survived their ICU course and were transferred to the floor, with one dying in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: ICU patients with COVID-19 frequently have hypertension. Many could be managed with noninvasive ventilation, despite the risk of aerosolization. The use of a severity scale augmented clinician management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Triage/organization & administration
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