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Handbook on East Asian Economic Integration ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1842889


This chapter provides an overview of the content in this volume on East Asian economic integration. It outlines debates about the nature and value of trade and economic integration, and examines whether East Asia will follow a similar evolution in the debate, as well as how East Asia will be affected by the growing anti-trade and anti-globalisation policy debates. The overview also includes policy discussions on the development of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its implications for East Asia. Following this discussion, it reviews the chapters of the volume in terms of four areas of focus relevant for the future development of East Asia: (i) new regional and multilateral trading arrangements: analysis and evaluation;(ii) production networks, investment policies, and global value chains;(iii) structural transformation, skills, and domestic capacity;and (iv) infrastructure, digital technologies, regional security, and environment. © The Editors and Contributors Severally 2021.

Epilepsia ; 62(SUPPL 3):15-16, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570614


Purpose: A government funded;interactive cloud storage platform ( allowing patients and carers to upload video and linked metadata for neurological diagnosis was established during the Covid-19 pandemic. We describe the utility for epilepsy and paroxysmal disorders in 16 centres with the first centre active from 01/05/2020. Method: Users are invited to register and utilise a password and passcode for access. Videos are uploaded with a structured history. The clinician classifies seizure type, syndrome, aetiology or other diagnosis using drop-down menus. Users and clinicians complete online evaluations. Postcode allows linkage to user index of deprivation score. Consents for teaching by the local clinical team and research within a national neurology video research database with research ethics approval are optional. All data, except the video file, transfer to the electronic patient record. Result: To 24/03/2021, 4582 video uploads (4024 paediatric, 558 adult), 1889 patients (1594 paediatric, 295 adult). 400-600 new videos per month. 323 physician and nurse users. Deprivation scores indicate equitable use across socio-economic groups. Paediatric classification: non-epileptic 55%, epileptic (36.5%), unknown (8.5%). Adult: non-epileptic 73.5% (34% dissociative, 41% movement disorders), epileptic 11%, unknown 15.5%. Paediatric seizure types include: focal impaired awareness (19%), generalised tonic clonic (18%), focal clonic (17%), epileptic spasms (13%). Non-epileptic events: tics (13%), normal behaviour (12%), sleep myoclonus (10%) gratification (8%), dissociative (5%). >95% carers ranked the system positively. Clinicians report video prevented face-to-face review in 57%, investigations in 44% and reduced time to diagnosis in 97%. Median time to review video and classify was 5 minutes. Conclusions: Remote care is facilitated, investigations prevented or prioritised, with rapid diagnosis and efficiencies in the patient pathway. A rapidly growing teaching resource and research database for semiology and machine learning diagnostics for paroxysmal disorders has been established. We plan to establish the system in low-income countries without cost.