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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 580-590, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has overwhelmed the global community, negatively impacting patient health and research efforts; associated neurological manifestations are a significant cause of morbidity. This review outlines the worldwide epidemiology of neurologic manifestations of different SARS-CoV-2 clinical pediatric phenotypes, including acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). We discuss strategies to develop adaptive global research platforms for future investigation into emerging pediatric neurologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Multicenter, multinational studies show that neurological manifestations of acute COVID-19, such as smell/taste disorders, headache, and stroke, are common in hospitalized adults (82%) and children (22%), associated with increased mortality in adults. Neurological manifestations of MIS-C are reported in up to 20% of children, including headache, irritability, and encephalopathy. Data on PASC are emerging and include fatigue, cognitive changes, and headache. Reports of neurological manifestations in each phenotype are limited by lack of pediatric-informed case definitions, common data elements, and resources. SUMMARY: Coordinated, well resourced, multinational investigation into SARS-CoV-2-related neurological manifestations in children is critical to rapid identification of global and region-specific risk factors, and developing treatment and mitigation strategies for the current pandemic and future health neurologic emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics
3.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2269-e2281, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to summarize the frequency of neurologic manifestations reported in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE for studies from December 31, 2019, to December 15, 2020, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 presenting with neurologic manifestations. Risk of bias was examined with the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for neurologic manifestations. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to determine the association of neurologic manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed with I 2, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. RESULTS: Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 patients with COVID-19, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurologic manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurologic symptoms included fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%), and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurologic diagnosis (pooled prevalence 2%). In patients with COVID-19 ≥60 years of age, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34%, and the presence of any neurologic manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.91). DISCUSSION: Up to one-third of patients with COVID-19 analyzed in this review experienced at least 1 neurologic manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those >60 years of age, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurologic manifestations in this group was associated with nearly a doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted with the limitations of observational studies and associated bias in mind. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181867.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/complications , Delirium/mortality , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039323, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228876

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Blood and imaging biomarkers show promise in prognosticating outcomes after paediatric cardiac arrest in pilot studies. We describe the methods and early recruitment challenges and solutions for an ongoing multicentre (n=14) observational trial, Personalising Outcomes following Child Cardiac Arrest to validate clinical, blood and imaging biomarkers individually and together in a clinically relevant panel. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (n=164) between 48 hours and 17 years of age who receive chest compressions irrespective of provider, duration, or event location and are admitted to an intensive care unit are eligible. Blood samples will be taken on days 1-3 for the measurement of brain-focused biomarkers analysed to predict the outcome. Clinically indicated and timed brain MRI and spectroscopy biomarkers will be analysed to predict the outcome. The primary outcome for the trial is survival with favourable (Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale score >70) outcome at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include mortality and pre-event and postdischarge measures of emotional, cognitive, physical and family functioning and health-related quality of life. Early enrollment targets were not met due to prolonged regulatory and subcontract processes. Multiple, simultaneous interventions including modification to inclusion criteria, additional sites and site visits were implemented with successful improvement in recruitment. Study procedures including outcomes and biomarker analysis are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Twelve of 14 sites will use the centralised Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh (PRO14030712). Two sites will use individual IRBs: Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Institutional Review Board and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin IRB. Parents and/or guardians are consented and children assented (when possible) by the site Primary investigator (PI) or research coordinator for enrollment. Study findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journal publications, public study website materials and invited lectures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02769026.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Aftercare , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin
5.
Neurology ; 96(4): e575-e586, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, p < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , New York City/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/etiology , Young Adult
6.
Neurocrit Care ; 33(3): 793-828, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778078

ABSTRACT

Since its original report in January 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has rapidly become one of the deadliest global pandemics. Early reports indicate possible neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe, highly variable prevalence rates, and uncertainty regarding causal or coincidental occurrence of symptoms. As neurological involvement of any systemic disease is frequently associated with adverse effects on morbidity and mortality, obtaining accurate and consistent global data on the extent to which COVID-19 may impact the nervous system is urgently needed. To address this need, investigators from the Neurocritical Care Society launched the Global Consortium Study of Neurological Dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID). The GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium rapidly implemented a Tier 1, pragmatic study to establish phenotypes and prevalence of neurological manifestations of COVID-19. A key component of this global collaboration is development and application of common data elements (CDEs) and definitions to facilitate rigorous and systematic data collection across resource settings. Integration of these elements is critical to reduce heterogeneity of data and allow for future high-quality meta-analyses. The GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium specifically designed these elements to be feasible for clinician investigators during a global pandemic when healthcare systems are likely overwhelmed and resources for research may be limited. Elements include pediatric components and translated versions to facilitate collaboration and data capture in Latin America, one of the epicenters of this global outbreak. In this manuscript, we share the specific data elements, definitions, and rationale for the adult and pediatric CDEs for Tier 1 of the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium, as well as the translated versions adapted for use in Latin America. Global efforts are underway to further harmonize CDEs with other large consortia studying neurological and general aspects of COVID-19 infections. Ultimately, the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium network provides a critical infrastructure to systematically capture data in current and future unanticipated disasters and disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Common Data Elements , Forms as Topic , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Data Collection , Documentation , Humans , Internationality , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neurocrit Care ; 33(1): 25-34, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic developed, reports of neurological dysfunctions spanning the central and peripheral nervous systems have emerged. The spectrum of acute neurological dysfunctions may implicate direct viral invasion, para-infectious complications, neurological manifestations of systemic diseases, or co-incident neurological dysfunction in the context of high SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. A rapid and pragmatic approach to understanding the prevalence, phenotypes, pathophysiology and prognostic implications of COVID-19 neurological syndromes is urgently needed. METHODS: The Global Consortium to Study Neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID), endorsed by the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS), was rapidly established to address this need in a tiered approach. Tier-1 consists of focused, pragmatic, low-cost, observational common data element (CDE) collection, which can be launched immediately at many sites in the first phase of this pandemic and is designed for expedited ethical board review with waiver-of-consent. Tier 2 consists of prospective functional and cognitive outcomes assessments with more detailed clinical, laboratory and radiographic data collection that would require informed consent. Tier 3 overlays Tiers 1 and 2 with experimental molecular, electrophysiology, pathology and imaging studies with longitudinal outcomes assessment and would require centers with specific resources. A multicenter pediatrics core has developed and launched a parallel study focusing on patients ages <18 years. Study sites are eligible for participation if they provide clinical care to COVID-19 patients and are able to conduct patient-oriented research under approval of an internal or global ethics committee. Hospitalized pediatric and adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and with acute neurological signs or symptoms are eligible to participate. The primary study outcome is the overall prevalence of neurological complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, which will be calculated by pooled estimates of each neurological finding divided by the average census of COVID-19 positive patients over the study period. Secondary outcomes include: in-hospital, 30 and 90-day morality, discharge modified Rankin score, ventilator-free survival, ventilator days, discharge disposition, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: In a one-month period (3/27/20-4/27/20) the GCS-NeuroCOVID consortium was able to recruit 71 adult study sites, representing 17 countries and 5 continents and 34 pediatrics study sites. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first large-scale global research collaboratives urgently assembled to evaluate acute neurological events in the context of a pandemic. The innovative and pragmatic tiered study approach has allowed for rapid recruitment and activation of numerous sites across the world-an approach essential to capture real-time critical neurological data to inform treatment strategies in this pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Prevalence , Research Design , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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