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1.
Children (Basel) ; 10(5)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential therapeutic role of exercise on health-related quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), coronary flow reserve (CFR), cardiac function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) patients. METHODS: This is a case series study of a 12-wk, home-based exercise intervention in children and adolescents after MIS-C diagnosis. From 16 MIS-C patients followed at our clinic, 6 were included (age: 7-16 years; 3 females). Three of them withdrew before the intervention and served as controls. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life, assessed PODCI. Secondary outcomes were CFR assessed by 13N-ammonia PET-CT imaging, cardiac function by echocardiography, cardiorespiratory fitness, and inflammatory and cardiac blood markers. RESULTS: In general, patients showed poor health-related quality of life, which seemed to be improved with exercise. Additionally, exercised patients showed improvements in coronary flow reserve, cardiac function, and aerobic conditioning. Non-exercised patients exhibited a slower pattern of recovery, particularly in relation to health-related quality of life and aerobic conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exercise may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of post-discharge MIS-C patients. As our design does not allow inferring causality, randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

2.
Cytokine ; 161: 156084, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120084

ABSTRACT

The exacerbation of the inflammatory response caused by SARS-CoV-2 in adults promotes the production of soluble mediators that could act as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for COVID-19. Among the potential biomarkers, the soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (sTREM-1) has been described as a predictor of inflammation severity. The aim was to evaluate sTREM-1 and cytokine serum concentrations in pediatric patients during the acute and convalescent phases of COVID-19. This was a prospective study that included 53 children/adolescents with acute COVID-19 (Acute-CoV group); 54 who recovered from COVID-19 (Post-CoV group) and 54 controls (Control group). Preexisting chronic conditions were present in the three groups, which were defined as follows: immunological diseases, neurological disorders, and renal and hepatic failures. The three groups were matched by age, sex, and similar preexisting chronic conditions. No differences in sTREM-1 levels were detected among the groups or when the groups were separately analyzed by preexisting chronic conditions. However, sTREM-1 analysis in the seven multisystemic inflammatory syndrome children (MIS-C) within the Acute-Cov group showed that sTREM-1 concentrations were higher in MIS-C vs non-MIS-C acute patients. Then, the receiver operating curve analysis (ROC) performed with MIS-C acute patients revealed a significant AUC of 0.870, and the sTREM-1 cutoff value of > 5781 pg/mL yielded a sensitivity of 71.4 % and a specificity of 91.3 % for disease severity, and patients with sTREM-1 levels above this cutoff presented an elevated risk for MIS-C development in 22.85-fold (OR = 22.85 [95 % CI 1.64-317.5], p = 0.02). The cytokine analyses in the acute phase revealed that IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were elevated regardless of whether the patient developed MIS-C, and those levels decreased in the convalescent phase, even when compared with controls. Spearman correlation analysis generated positive indexes between sTREM-1 and IL-12 and TNF-α concentrations, only within the Acute-CoV group. Our findings revealed that sTREM-1 in pediatric patients has good predictive accuracy as an early screening tool for surveillance of MIS-C cases, even in patients with chronic underlying conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Immunologic , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 , Membrane Glycoproteins , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Cytokines
4.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate demographic, anthropometric and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of surviving pediatric post-COVID-19 patients (n=53) and pediatric subjects without laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 included as controls (n=52) was performed. RESULTS: The median duration between COVID-19 diagnosis (n=53) and follow-up was 4.4 months (0.8-10.7). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) patients reported at least one persistent symptom at the longitudinal follow-up visit and 12/53 (23%) had long COVID-19, with at least one symptom lasting for >12 weeks. The most frequently reported symptoms at the longitudinal follow-up visit were headache (19%), severe recurrent headache (9%), tiredness (9%), dyspnea (8%), and concentration difficulty (4%). At the longitudinal follow-up visit, the frequencies of anemia (11% versus 0%, p=0.030), lymphopenia (42% versus 18%, p=0.020), C-reactive protein level of >30 mg/L (35% versus 0%, p=0.0001), and D-dimer level of >1000 ng/mL (43% versus 6%, p=0.0004) significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Chest X-ray abnormalities (11% versus 2%, p=0.178) and cardiac alterations on echocardiogram (33% versus 22%, p=0.462) were similar at both visits. Comparison of characteristic data between patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit and controls showed similar age (p=0.962), proportion of male sex (p=0.907), ethnicity (p=0.566), family minimum monthly wage (p=0.664), body mass index (p=0.601), and pediatric pre-existing chronic conditions (p=1.000). The Pediatric Quality of Live Inventory 4.0 scores, median physical score (69 [0-100] versus 81 [34-100], p=0.012), and school score (60 [15-100] versus 70 [15-95], p=0.028) were significantly lower in pediatric patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 showed a longitudinal impact on HRQoL parameters, particularly in physical/school domains, reinforcing the need for a prospective multidisciplinary approach for these patients. These data highlight the importance of closer monitoring of children and adolescents by the clinical team after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Latin America , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic/clinical/laboratory/treatments and outcomes among children and adolescents with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients diagnosed with pediatric COVID-19 (aged <18 years) between April 11, 2020 and April 22, 2021. During this period, 102/5,951 (1.7%) of all admissions occurred in neonates, children, and adolescents. Furthermore, 3,962 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection samples were processed in patients aged <18 years, and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 155 (4%) inpatients and outpatients. Six/155 pediatric patients were excluded from the study. Therefore, the final group included 149 children and adolescents (n=97 inpatients and 52 outpatients) with positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: The frequencies of sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, myalgia, nausea, lymphopenia, pre-existing chronic conditions, immunosuppressive conditions, and autoimmune diseases were significantly reduced in children and adolescents (p<0.05). Likewise, the frequencies of enoxaparin use (p=0.037), current immunosuppressant use (p=0.008), vasoactive agents (p=0.045), arterial hypotension (p<0.001), and shock (p=0.024) were significantly lower in children than in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had increased odds ratios (ORs) for sore throat (OR 13.054; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.750-61.977; p=0.001), nausea (OR 8.875; 95% CI 1.660-47.446; p=0.011), and lymphopenia (OR 3.575; 95% CI 1.355-9.430; p=0.010), but also had less hospitalizations (OR 0.355; 95% CI 0.138-0.916; p=0.032). The additional logistic regression analysis on patients with preexisting chronic conditions (n=108) showed that death as an outcome was significantly associated with pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (OR 22.300; 95% CI 2.341-212.421; p=0.007) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (OR 11.261; 95% CI 1.189-106. 581; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred in adolescents. Individuals belonging to this age group had an acute systemic involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatric SARS and MIS-C were the most important factors associated with the mortality rate in pediatric chronic conditions with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Clinics ; 75:e2209-e2209, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: grc-742678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age&lt;18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034);pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008);hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006);and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels &gt;50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels &gt;1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p&lt;0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p&lt;0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p&lt;0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p&lt;0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p&lt;0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p&lt;0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p&lt;0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p&lt;0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98;95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86;p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85;95%CI=1.34-211.80;p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00;95%CI=6.39-526.79;p&lt;0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.

7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vomiting/etiology
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