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1.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229379

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, several treatments have been proposed to prevent the progression of the disease. Currently, three antiviral (molnupiravir, nirmaltrevir/r, remdesivir) and two monoclonal antibodies (casirivimab/imdevimab and sotrovimab) are available in Italy. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the presence of risk factors associated with disease progression. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 evaluated between 01/01/2022 ad 10/05/2022 by our Unit of Infectious Diseases in Sassari. We defined disease progression as the necessity of starting O2 therapy. According to AIFA (Italian Medicines Agency) indications, preventive treatment was prescribed in patients with recent symptoms onset (≤five days), no need for oxygen supplementation, and risk factors for disease progression. Subgroup differences in quantitative variables were evaluated using Student's t-test. Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to assess differences for qualitative variables. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to determine factors associated with progression. A two-tailed p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed with STATA version 17 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). We included 1145 people with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, of which 336 (29.3%) developed severe disease with oxygen supplementation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, dementia, haematologic tumors, heart failure, dyspnoea or fever at first evaluation, having ground glass opacities or consolidation at the first CT scan, and bacteria coinfection were associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Vaccination (at least two doses) and early treatment with antiviral or monoclonal antibodies were associated with a lower risk of disease progression. In conclusion, our study showed that vaccination and early treatment with antiviral and/or monoclonal antibodies significantly reduce the risk of disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Progression
2.
Life (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166699

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, several scores have been proposed to identify infected individuals at a higher risk of progression and death. The most famous is the 4C score. However, it was developed in early 2020. Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the 4C score during the wave in which the Omicron variant was prevalent. An observational study was conducted at an Italian University Hospital between 1 January and 31 July 2022. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the ability of the 4C score to predict mortality. Overall, 1186 people were recruited, of which 160 (13.5%) died. According to the 4C score, 177 (11.6%) were classified as having a low risk of mortality, 302 (25.5%) were intermediate, 596 (50.3%) were high, and 151 (12.7%) were very high. The ROC curve of the 4C score showed an AUC (95% CI) value of 0.78 (0.74−0.82). At the criterion value of > 10, the sensitivity was 76.2% and the specificity was 62.67%. Similar to previous studies, the 4C mortality score performed well in our sample, and it is still a useful tool for clinicians to identify patients with a high risk of progression. However, clinicians must be aware that the mortality rate reported in the original studies was higher than that observed in our study.

3.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(12): 2029-2033, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050809

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, several treatment options have been proposed (e.g. steroids, heparin, antivirals and monoclonal antibodies). Remdesivir was the first antiviral approved for the treatment of COVID-19, even though controversial evidence exists concerning the efficacy. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a study to evaluate whether the use of remdesivir was associated with lower mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of a retrospective cohort collecting medical records of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted in the infectious Disease Unit of Sassari University Hospital (S.C. Clinica di Malattie Infettive, AOU di Sassari, Italy), or in the Infectious Disease Unit of Foggia (AOU "Ospedali Riuniti" Foggia), between 1 July 2020 and 10 November 2021. The outcome considered was death; thus, we matched death (cases) to survivors (controls) by sex and age (1:1). RESULTS: We included in the study 342 patients, with 171 deaths (cases) and 171 survivors (controls). Remdesivir was administered to 60 people in the control group and to 18 people in the case group (35.1% vs. 10.5%, p < .0001). In the multivariate analysis, treatment with remdesivir and heparin was associated with lower mortality (OR: 0.19 [95% CI :0.10-0.38], p <.0001; OR: 0.39 [95% CI: 0.21-0.74] p = .004, respectively). On the contrary, diabetes, oxygen therapy and CPAP/NIV were associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study showed lower mortality in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection treated with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of Vitamin D3 (VitD3) among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the difference in survival rates between patients receiving and not VitD3. The secondary endpoints were to evaluate clinical outcomes, such as needing non-invasive ventilation (NIV), ICU transfer, and laboratory findings (inflammatory parameters). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, monocentric matched-cohort study, including patients attending our ward for COVID-19. Patients were divided into two groups depending on VitD3 administration (Group A) or not (Group B) among patients with low VitD levels (defined as blood levels < 30 ng/mL), which depended on physicians' judgment. Our internal protocol provides VitD3 100,000 UI/daily for two days. FINDINGS: 58 patients were included in Group A, and 58 in Group B. Patients were matched for age, sex, comorbidities, COVID-19-related symptoms, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, blood exams, and medical treatments. Regarding the principal endpoint, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in survival rates [Group A vs. Group B = 3 vs. 11 (p = 0.042)]. When considering secondary endpoints, Group A patients were less likely to undergo NIV [Group A vs. Group B = 12 vs. 23 (p = 0.026)] and showed an improvement in almost all inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The link between VitD3 deficiency and the clinical course of COVID-19 during hospitalization suggests that VitD3 level is a useful prognostic marker. Considering the safety of supplementation and the low cost, VitD3 replacement should be considered among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients needing hospitalization.

5.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, millions of people have been infected and died. Different therapeutic approaches have been recommended, but only a few have shown clinical advantages. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been recommended to prevent COVID-19-related thrombo-embolic events. We aim to evaluate the impact of early treatment with LMWH on hospital admission and death in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted an observational monocentric retrospective study to evaluate the preventive role of LMWH on the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were recruited from the beginning of the Italian epidemic to March 31st, 2021. We excluded patients with missing data and those chronically exposed to LMWH. Treatment prescription was based on international and national guidelines and modified depending on clinical presentation and drug-drug interactions. RESULTS: of 734 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were recruited, with 357 (48.6%) males and a median (IQR) age of 77.9 (65-85.7) years. 77.5% of people developed SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms and 62.8% were admitted to the hospital, and 20.2% died. Four hundred ninety-two (67%) started LMWH. In particular, 296 (40.3%) were treated within five days since symptoms onset. At logistic regression, early LMWH therapy was associated with lower mortality. Furthermore, remdesivir treatment showed a lower risk of death. On the contrary, age, BMI >30Kg/m2, neurological diseases, fever or dyspnea were associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, early treatment with LMWH was associated with lower mortality in our cohort. Further studies are needed to better assess the role of wider LMWH administration in terms of timing and regimen dose.

6.
Healthcare ; 10(5):956, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857180

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of Vitamin D3 (VitD3) among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the difference in survival rates between patients receiving and not VitD3. The secondary endpoints were to evaluate clinical outcomes, such as needing non-invasive ventilation (NIV), ICU transfer, and laboratory findings (inflammatory parameters). Methods: We conducted a retrospective, monocentric matched-cohort study, including patients attending our ward for COVID-19. Patients were divided into two groups depending on VitD3 administration (Group A) or not (Group B) among patients with low VitD levels (defined as blood levels < 30 ng/mL), which depended on physicians' judgment. Our internal protocol provides VitD3 100,000 UI/daily for two days. Findings: 58 patients were included in Group A, and 58 in Group B. Patients were matched for age, sex, comorbidities, COVID-19-related symptoms, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, blood exams, and medical treatments. Regarding the principal endpoint, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in survival rates [Group A vs. Group B = 3 vs. 11 (p = 0.042)]. When considering secondary endpoints, Group A patients were less likely to undergo NIV [Group A vs. Group B = 12 vs. 23 (p = 0.026)] and showed an improvement in almost all inflammatory parameters. Conclusions: The link between VitD3 deficiency and the clinical course of COVID-19 during hospitalization suggests that VitD3 level is a useful prognostic marker. Considering the safety of supplementation and the low cost, VitD3 replacement should be considered among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients needing hospitalization.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 779118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674348

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 is fundamentally a respiratory pathogen with a wide spectrum of symptoms. The COVID-19 related pancreatitis is less considered than other clinical features. The purpose is to describe two cases of pancreatitis associated with COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: Patients' demographics, clinical features, laboratory, and instrumental findings were collected. RESULTS: Two patients admitted to the hospital were diagnosed with COVID-19 and severe acute pancreatitis, according to the Atlanta criteria. Other causes of acute pancreatitis were excluded. Treatment included broad-spectrum antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, and low molecular weight heparin. Steroids, oxygen, antifungal treatment, and pain killers were administered when appropriate. Both patients were asymptomatic, with normal vital parameters and blood exams, and were discharged in a good condition. CONCLUSION: It is recommendable to include lipase and amylase on laboratory routine tests in order to evaluate the need for the abdominal CT-scan and specific therapy before hospital admission of the patients with COVID-19 related life-threatening acute pancreatitis.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
10.
Med Princ Pract ; 30(6): 535-541, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients and any possible changes after their discharge. SUBJECT AND METHODS: We collected data of patients admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit in Sassari, Italy, for COVID-19, from March 8 to May 8, 2020. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was performed 1 week after admission (T0) and 1 week after discharge (T1). The cutoff point chosen to define the clinical significance of depressive symptoms was 20 (at least moderate). RESULTS: Forty-eight subjects were included. Mean age was 64.3 ± 17.6 years, and 32 (66.7%) were male. Most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases (19; 39.6%) and hypertension (17; 35.4%). When performing BDI-II at T0, 21 (43.7%) patients reported depressive symptoms at T0, according to the chosen cutoff point (BDI-II = 20). Eight (16.7%) patients had minimal symptoms. Mild mood disturbance and moderate and severe depressive symptoms were found in 24 (50%), 14 (29.2%), and 2 (4.2%) patients, respectively, at T0. The comparison of the BDI-II questionnaire at T0 with T1 showed a significant improvement in the total score (p < 0.0001), as well as in 4 out of the 5 selected questions of interest (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that kidney failure and the death of a roommate were significantly associated with severity of mood disorders. CONCLUSION: Mood disturbances and depressive symptoms commonly occur among COVID-19 inpatients. Our results show that COVID-19 inpatients might be at higher risk for developing depressive reactive disorders and could benefit from an early psychological evaluation and strategies improving sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Adjustment Disorders , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Quality
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(3): 353-359, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of factors that predict the length of hospital stay (HS) in patients affected by coronavirus desease (COVID-19) might assist therapeutic decisions and patient flow management. METHODOLOGY: We collected, at the time of admission, routine clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters of hypoxia, lung damage, inflammation, and organ dysfunction in a consecutive series of 50 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Respiratory Disease and Infectious Disease Units of the University Hospital of Sassari (North-Sardinia, Italy) and alive on discharge. RESULTS: Prolonged HS (PHS, >21 days) patients had significantly lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio and lymphocytes, and significantly higher Chest CT severity score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) when compared to non-PHS patients. In univariate logistic regression, Chest CT severity score (OR = 1.1891, p = 0.007), intensity of care (OR = 2.1350, p = 0.022), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR = 0.9802, p = 0.007), CRP (OR = 1.0952, p = 0.042) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (OR = 1.0039, p = 0.036) were significantly associated with PHS. However, in multivariate logistic regression, only the PaO2/FiO2 ratio remained significantly correlated with PHS (OR = 0.9164; 95% CI 0.8479-0.9904, p = 0.0275). In ROC curve analysis, using a threshold of 248, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio predicted PHS with sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 91%, respectively (AUC = 0.780, 95% CI 0.637-0.886 p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission is independently associated with PHS in COVID-19 patients. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
12.
13.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(2): 811-816, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is secreted by cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it is widely recognized as a negative prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlations between the olfactory scores determined by psychophysical tests and the serum levels of IL-6 in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) METHODS: Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test and IL-6 plasma level determination within 10 days of the clinical onset of COVID-19. RESULTS: Seventy-four COVID-19 patients were included in this study. COVID-19 staged as mild in 34 patients, moderate in 26 and severe in 14 cases. There were no significant differences in olfactory scores across the different COVID-19 severity groups. In the patient series, the median plasma level of IL-6 was 7.7 pg/mL (IQR 3.7-18.8). The concentration of IL-6 was found to be significantly correlated with the severity of COVID-19 with a directly proportional relationship. The correlation between IL-6 plasma concentrations and olfactory scores was weak (rs = 0.182) and not significant (p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, psychophysical olfactory scores did not show significant correlations with the plasma levels of a well-recognized negative prognostic factor such as IL-6. This observation casts some shadows on the positive prognostic value of olfactory dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
14.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 12(1): e2020056, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760987

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present review is to give an update regarding the classification, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnoses, and treatment of the Rickettsial diseases present in the Mediterranean area. We performed a comprehensive search, through electronic databases (Pubmed - MEDLINE) and search engines (Google Scholar), of peer-reviewed publications (articles, reviews, and books). The availability of new diagnostic tools, including Polymerase Chain Reaction and nucleotide sequencing has significantly modified the classification of intracellular bacteria, including the order Rickettsiales with more and more new Rickettsia species recognized as human pathogens. Furthermore, emerging Rickettsia species have been found in several countries and are often associated with unique clinical pictures that may challenge the physician in the early detection of the diseases. Rickettsial infections include a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from a benign to a potentially life treating disease that requires prompt recognition and proper management. Recently, due to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the differential diagnosis with COVID-19 is of crucial importance. The correct understanding of the clinical features, diagnostic tools, and proper treatment can assist clinicians in the management of Rickettsioses in the Mediterranean area.

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