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1.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241035

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated ARDS (C-ARDS) is mentioned to express higher analgosedation needs, in comparison to ARDS of other etiologies. The objective of this monocentric retrospective cohort study was to compare the analgosedation needs between C-ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS (non-C-ARDS) on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Data were collected from the electronic medical records of all adult patients treated with C-ARDS in our Department of Intensive Care Medicine between March 2020 and April 2022. The control group included patients treated with non-C-ARDS between the years 2009 and 2020. A sedation sum score was created in order to describe the overall analgosedation needs. A total of 115 (31.5%) patients with C-ARDS and 250 (68.5%) with non-C-ARDS requiring VV-ECMO therapy were included in the study. The sedation sum score was significantly higher in the C-ARDS group (p < 0.001). COVID-19 was significantly associated with analgosedation in the univariable analysis. By contrast, the multivariable model did not show a significant association between COVID-19 and the sum score. The year of VV-ECMO support, BMI, SAPS II and prone positioning were significantly associated with sedation needs. The potential impact of COVID-19 remains unclear, and further studies are warranted in order to evaluate specific disease characteristics linked with analgesia and sedation.

2.
Neurol Res Pract ; 5(1): 17, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unpredictable vegetative deteriorations made the treatment of patients with acute COVID-19 on intensive care unit particularly challenging during the first waves of the pandemic. Clinical correlates of dysautonomia and their impact on the disease course in critically ill COVID-19 patients are unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data collected during a single-center observational study (March 2020-November 2021) which was performed at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, a large tertiary medical center in Germany. All patients admitted to ICU due to acute COVID-19 disease during the study period were included (n = 361). Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) per day were used as clinical surrogates of dysautonomia and compared between survivors and non-survivors at different time points after admission. Intraindividual correlation of vital signs with laboratory parameters were calculated and corrected for age, sex and disease severity. RESULTS: Patients who deceased in ICU had a longer stay (median days ± IQR, survivors 11.0 ± 27.3, non-survivors 14.1 ± 18.7, P = 0.85), in contrast time spent under invasive ventilation was not significantly different (median hours ± IQR, survivors 322 ± 782, non-survivors 286 ± 434, P = 0.29). Reduced HRV and BPV predicted lethal outcome in patients staying on ICU longer than 10 days after adjustment for age, sex, and disease severity. Accordingly, HRV was significantly less correlated with inflammatory markers (e.g. CRP and Procalcitonin) and blood carbon dioxide in non-survivors in comparison to survivors indicating uncoupling between autonomic function and inflammation in non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests autonomic dysfunction as a contributor to mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients during the first waves of the pandemic. Serving as a surrogate for disease progression, these findings could contribute to the clinical management of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Furthermore, the suggested measure of dysautonomia and correlation with other laboratory parameters is non-invasive, simple, and cost-effective and should be evaluated as an additional outcome parameter in septic patients treated in the ICU in the future.

3.
Eur J Neurol ; 30(8): 2297-2304, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate if pre-existing neurological conditions, such as dementia and a history of cerebrovascular disease, increase the risk of severe outcomes including death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and vascular events in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2022, when Omicron was the predominant variant. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction test, admitted to the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf from 20 December 2021 until 15 August 2022. In all, 1249 patients were included in the study. In-hospital mortality was 3.8% and the ICU admission rate was 9.9%. Ninety-three patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and 36 patients with pre-existing all-cause dementia were identified and propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities, vaccination status and dexamethasone treatment was performed in a 1:4 ratio with patients without the respective precondition using nearest neighbor matching. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that neither pre-existing cerebrovascular disease nor all-cause dementia increased mortality or the risk for ICU admission. All-cause dementia in the medical history also had no effect on vascular complications under investigation. In contrast, an increased odds ratio for both pulmonary artery embolism and secondary cerebrovascular events was observed in patients with pre-existing chronic cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction in the medical history. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patients with pre-existing cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction in their medical history may be particularly susceptible to vascular complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection with presumed Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Blood Purif ; : 1-10, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264467

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunomodulatory therapies have shown beneficial effects in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with hypercytokinemia might benefit from the removal of inflammatory mediators via hemadsorption. METHODS: Single-center prospective randomized trial at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Patients with confirmed COVID-19, refractory shock (norepinephrine ≥0.2 µg/kg/min to maintain a mean arterial pressure ≥65 mm Hg), interleukin-6 (IL-6) ≥500 ng/L, and an indication for renal replacement therapy or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were included. Patients received either hemadsorption therapy (HT) or standard medical therapy (SMT). For HT, a CytoSorb® adsorber was used for up to 5 days and was replaced every 18-24 h. The primary endpoint was sustained hemodynamic improvement (norepinephrine ≤0.05 µg/kg/min ≥24 h). RESULTS: Of 242 screened patients, 24 were randomized and assigned to either HT (N = 12) or SMT (N = 12). Both groups had similar severity as assessed by SAPS II (median 75 points HT group vs. 79 SMT group, p = 0.590) and SOFA (17 vs. 16, p = 0.551). Median IL-6 levels were 2,269 (IQR 948-3,679) and 3,747 (1,301-5,415) ng/L in the HT and SMT groups at baseline, respectively (p = 0.378). Shock resolution (primary endpoint) was reached in 33% (4/12) versus 17% (2/12) in the HT and SMT groups, respectively (p = 0.640). Twenty-eight-day mortality was 58% (7/12) in the HT compared to 67% (8/12) in the SMT group (p = 1.0). During the treatment period of 5 days, 6/12 (50%) of the SMT patients died, in contrast to 1/12 (8%) in the HT group. CONCLUSION: HT was associated with a non-significant trend toward clinical improvement within the intervention period. In selected patients, HT might be an option for stabilization before transfer and further therapeutic decisions. This finding warrants further investigation in larger trials.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0410322, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246385

ABSTRACT

In vitro data suggest the monoclonal antibody sotrovimab may have lost inhibitory capability against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant. We aimed to provide real-life data on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients. We retrospectively analyzed patients who were treated at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between December 2021 and June 2022. Out of all 1,254 patients, 185 were treated with sotrovimab: 147 patients received sotrovimab monotherapy, and 38 received combination treatment with sotrovimab and remdesivir. We compared in-hospital mortality for the different treatment regimens for patients treated on regular wards and the intensive care unit separately and performed propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities, immunosuppression, and additional dexamethasone treatment to select patients who did not receive antiviral treatment for comparison. No difference in in-hospital mortality was observed between any of the treatment groups and the respective control groups. These findings underline that sotrovimab adds no clinical benefit for hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infections. IMPORTANCE This study shows that among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection at risk of disease progression, treatment with sotrovimab alone or in combination with remdesivir did not decrease in-hospital mortality. These real-world clinical findings in combination with previous in vitro data about lacking neutralizing activity of sotrovimab against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant do not support sotrovimab as a treatment option in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , Antibodies, Neutralizing
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1027586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109790

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in high hospitalization rates worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 is frequent and associated with disease severity and poor outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and its implication on outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all COVID-19 patients admitted to the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany) between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2021. Demographics, clinical parameters, type of organ support, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mortality and severity scores were assessed. Results: Three-hundred critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included. The median age of the study population was 61 (IQR 51-71) years and 66% (n = 198) were male. 73% (n = 219) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. Overall, 68% (n = 204) of patients suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome and 30% (n = 91) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We found that 46% (n = 139) of patients required KRT. Septic shock (OR 11.818, 95% CI: 5.941-23.506, p < 0.001), higher simplified acute physiology scores (SAPS II) (OR 1.048, 95% CI: 1.014-1.084, p = 0.006) and vasopressor therapy (OR 5.475, 95% CI: 1.127-26.589, p = 0.035) were independently associated with the initiation of KRT. 61% (n = 85) of patients with and 18% (n = 29) without KRT died in the ICU (p < 0.001). Cox regression found that KRT was independently associated with mortality (HR 2.075, 95% CI: 1.342-3.208, p = 0.001) after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk of acute kidney injury with about half of patients requiring KRT. The initiation of KRT was associated with high mortality.

7.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580658

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is potentially lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but may be accompanied by serious adverse events, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICRH). We hypothesized that ICRH occurs more frequently in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with ARDS of other etiologies. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with venovenous (vv-) ECMO for ARDS between January 2011 and April 2021. Patients were included if they had received a cranial computed tomography (cCT) scan during vv-ECMO support or within 72 h after ECMO removal. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with ICRH. During the study period, we identified 204 patients with vv-ECMO for ARDS, for whom a cCT scan was available. We observed ICRH in 35.4% (n = 17/48) of patients with COVID-19 and in 16.7% (n = 26/156) of patients with ARDS attributable to factors other than COVID-19. COVID-19 (HR: 2.945; 95%; CI: 1.079-8.038; p = 0.035) and carboxyhemoglobin (HR: 0.330; 95%; CI: 0.135-0.806; p = 0.015) were associated with ICRH during vv-ECMO. In patients receiving vv-ECMO, the incidence of ICRH is doubled in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients suffering from ARDS attributable to other causes. More studies on the association between COVID-19 and ICRH during vv-ECMO are urgently needed to identify risk patterns and targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524051

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a viable therapy option for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, veno-venous (vv) ECMO is frequently used in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). VV-ECMO was also frequently utilised during the influenza pandemic and experience with this complex and invasive treatment has increased worldwide since. However, data on comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19 and influenza-related severe ARDS treated with vv-ECMO are scarce. This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with vv/(veno-arterial)va-ECMO between January 2009 and January 2021 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 or influenza were included. Patient characteristics, parameters related to ICU and vv/va-ECMO as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Mortality was assessed up to 90 days after vv/va-ECMO initiation. Overall, 113 patients were included, 52 (46%) with COVID-19 and 61 (54%) with influenza-related ARDS. Median age of patients with COVID-19 and influenza was 58 (IQR 53-64) and 52 (39-58) years (p < 0.001), 35% and 31% (p = 0.695) were female, respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3 (1-5) and 2 (0-5) points in the two groups (p = 0.309). Median SAPS II score pre-ECMO was 27 (24-36) vs. 32 (28-41) points (p = 0.009), and SOFA score was 13 (11-14) vs. 12 (8-15) points (p = 0.853), respectively. Median P/F ratio pre-ECMO was 64 (46-78) and 73 (56-104) (p = 0.089); pH was 7.20 (7.16-7.29) and 7.26 (7.18-7.33) (p = 0.166). Median days on vv/va-ECMO were 17 (7-27) and 11 (7-20) (p = 0.295), respectively. Seventy-one percent and sixty-nine percent had renal replacement therapy (p = 0.790). Ninety-four percent of patients with COVID-19 and seventy-seven percent with influenza experienced vv/va-ECMO-associated bleeding events (p = 0.004). Thirty-four percent and fifty-five percent were successfully weaned from ECMO (p = 0.025). Ninety-day mortality was 65% and 57% in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively (p = 0.156). Median length of ICU stay was 24 (13-44) and 28 (16-14) days (p = 0.470), respectively. Despite similar disease severity, the use of vv/va-ECMO in ARDS related to COVID-19 and influenza resulted in similar outcomes at 90 days. A significant higher rate of bleeding complications and thrombosis was observed in patients with COVID-19.

10.
Biomarkers ; 26(5): 417-424, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: About 20% of ICU patients with COVID-19 require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) might be used for risk assessment. This study investigates MR-proADM for RRT prediction in ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive patients with COVID-19, requiring ICU admission at a university hospital in Germany between March and September 2020. Clinical characteristics, details on AKI, and RRT were assessed. MR-proADM was measured on admission. RESULTS: 64 patients were included (49 (77%) males). Median age was 62.5y (54-73). 47 (73%) patients were ventilated and 50 (78%) needed vasopressors. 25 (39%) patients had severe ARDS, and 10 patients needed veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 29 (45%) patients required RRT; median time from admission to RRT start was 2 (1-9) days. MR-proADM on admission was higher in the RRT group (2.491 vs. 1.23 nmol/l; p = 0.002) and showed the highest correlation with renalSOFA. ROC curve analysis showed that MR-proADM predicts RRT with an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.543-0.828; p = 0.019). In multivariable logistic regression MR-proADM was an independent predictor (OR: 3.813, 95% CI 1.110-13.102, p<0.05) for RRT requirement. CONCLUSION: AKI requiring RRT is frequent in ICU patients with COVID-19. MR-proADM on admission was able to predict RRT requirement, which may be of interest for risk stratification and management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness/therapy , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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