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1.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313239

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunomodulatory therapies have shown beneficial effects in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with hypercytokinemia might benefit from removal of inflammatory mediators via hemadsorption. Methods: : Single-center prospective randomized trial at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Patients with confirmed COVID-19, refractory shock (norepinephrine ≥0.2 μg/kg/min to maintain a mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg), IL-6≥500 ng/l and an indication for renal replacement therapy (RRT) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were included. Patients received either hemadsorption therapy (HT) or standard medical therapy (SMT). For HT, a CytoSorb® adsorber was used for up to 5 days and was replaced every 18–24 hours. The primary endpoint was sustained hemodynamic improvement (norepinephrine ≤0.05 µg/kg/min≥24h). Secondary endpoints included 28-day mortality, SOFA, and reduction of IL-6, PCT, and MR-proADM. Results: : Of 242 screened patients, 24 were randomized and assigned to either HT (N=12) or SMT (N=12). Both groups had similar severity as assessed by SAPS II (median 75 points HT group vs. 79 SMT group, p=0.590) and SOFA (17 vs. 16, p=0.551). At randomization, 22 (92%) patients were on RRT and 11 (46%) had vv-ECMO. Median IL-6 levels were 2269 (IQR 948–3679) and 3747 (1301–5415) ng/l in the HT and SMT group at baseline, respectively (p=0.378). Serum IL-6 reduction in the first 24h of treatment compared between both groups was 83% vs. 46% (p=0.235). Shock resolution (primary endpoint) was reached in 33% (4/12) vs. 17% (2/12) in the HT and SMT group, respectively (p=0.640). 28-day mortality was 58% (7/12) in the HT compared to 67% (8/12) in the SMT group (p=1.0). Conclusion: HT was associated with a non-significant trend towards clinical improvement within the intervention period including reduction of IL-6 levels and shock resolution. In selected patients, HT might therefore be an option for stabilization and bridge to transfer and decision. ( Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04344080, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04344080, trial registration date 04/14/2020)]

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580658

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is potentially lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but may be accompanied by serious adverse events, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICRH). We hypothesized that ICRH occurs more frequently in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with ARDS of other etiologies. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with venovenous (vv-) ECMO for ARDS between January 2011 and April 2021. Patients were included if they had received a cranial computed tomography (cCT) scan during vv-ECMO support or within 72 h after ECMO removal. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with ICRH. During the study period, we identified 204 patients with vv-ECMO for ARDS, for whom a cCT scan was available. We observed ICRH in 35.4% (n = 17/48) of patients with COVID-19 and in 16.7% (n = 26/156) of patients with ARDS attributable to factors other than COVID-19. COVID-19 (HR: 2.945; 95%; CI: 1.079-8.038; p = 0.035) and carboxyhemoglobin (HR: 0.330; 95%; CI: 0.135-0.806; p = 0.015) were associated with ICRH during vv-ECMO. In patients receiving vv-ECMO, the incidence of ICRH is doubled in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients suffering from ARDS attributable to other causes. More studies on the association between COVID-19 and ICRH during vv-ECMO are urgently needed to identify risk patterns and targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524051

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a viable therapy option for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, veno-venous (vv) ECMO is frequently used in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). VV-ECMO was also frequently utilised during the influenza pandemic and experience with this complex and invasive treatment has increased worldwide since. However, data on comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19 and influenza-related severe ARDS treated with vv-ECMO are scarce. This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with vv/(veno-arterial)va-ECMO between January 2009 and January 2021 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 or influenza were included. Patient characteristics, parameters related to ICU and vv/va-ECMO as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Mortality was assessed up to 90 days after vv/va-ECMO initiation. Overall, 113 patients were included, 52 (46%) with COVID-19 and 61 (54%) with influenza-related ARDS. Median age of patients with COVID-19 and influenza was 58 (IQR 53-64) and 52 (39-58) years (p < 0.001), 35% and 31% (p = 0.695) were female, respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3 (1-5) and 2 (0-5) points in the two groups (p = 0.309). Median SAPS II score pre-ECMO was 27 (24-36) vs. 32 (28-41) points (p = 0.009), and SOFA score was 13 (11-14) vs. 12 (8-15) points (p = 0.853), respectively. Median P/F ratio pre-ECMO was 64 (46-78) and 73 (56-104) (p = 0.089); pH was 7.20 (7.16-7.29) and 7.26 (7.18-7.33) (p = 0.166). Median days on vv/va-ECMO were 17 (7-27) and 11 (7-20) (p = 0.295), respectively. Seventy-one percent and sixty-nine percent had renal replacement therapy (p = 0.790). Ninety-four percent of patients with COVID-19 and seventy-seven percent with influenza experienced vv/va-ECMO-associated bleeding events (p = 0.004). Thirty-four percent and fifty-five percent were successfully weaned from ECMO (p = 0.025). Ninety-day mortality was 65% and 57% in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively (p = 0.156). Median length of ICU stay was 24 (13-44) and 28 (16-14) days (p = 0.470), respectively. Despite similar disease severity, the use of vv/va-ECMO in ARDS related to COVID-19 and influenza resulted in similar outcomes at 90 days. A significant higher rate of bleeding complications and thrombosis was observed in patients with COVID-19.

5.
Biomarkers ; 26(5): 417-424, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: About 20% of ICU patients with COVID-19 require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) might be used for risk assessment. This study investigates MR-proADM for RRT prediction in ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive patients with COVID-19, requiring ICU admission at a university hospital in Germany between March and September 2020. Clinical characteristics, details on AKI, and RRT were assessed. MR-proADM was measured on admission. RESULTS: 64 patients were included (49 (77%) males). Median age was 62.5y (54-73). 47 (73%) patients were ventilated and 50 (78%) needed vasopressors. 25 (39%) patients had severe ARDS, and 10 patients needed veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 29 (45%) patients required RRT; median time from admission to RRT start was 2 (1-9) days. MR-proADM on admission was higher in the RRT group (2.491 vs. 1.23 nmol/l; p = 0.002) and showed the highest correlation with renalSOFA. ROC curve analysis showed that MR-proADM predicts RRT with an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.543-0.828; p = 0.019). In multivariable logistic regression MR-proADM was an independent predictor (OR: 3.813, 95% CI 1.110-13.102, p<0.05) for RRT requirement. CONCLUSION: AKI requiring RRT is frequent in ICU patients with COVID-19. MR-proADM on admission was able to predict RRT requirement, which may be of interest for risk stratification and management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness/therapy , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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