Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; 261(4):480-489, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US. ANIMALS: 204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021. PROCEDURES: Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners. RESULTS: Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVlD-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following expo- sure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.

2.
European Journal of General Practice Conference: 94th European General Practice Research Network Conference, EGPRN ; 29(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2270000

ABSTRACT

Background: During the pandemic, not only SARS-CoV-2 infections and their complications have an impact on public health. The management of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus can be affected too. Patients may not receive the same quality of care because of pandemic. Research question: To determine the impact of the pandemic on quality and outcome of diabetes care. Method(s): Retrospective comparison of two cohorts in a primary care setting in Switzerland. Adult patients (>=18 years) with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and with at least one consultation with a general practitioner, between 17 March 2018 and 16 March 2019 (cohort 1) and 17 March 2019 and 16 March 2020 (cohort 2), were included and observed for two years (until 16 March 2020 and 16 March 2021, respectively). Quality indicators and outcomes of diabetes care at patient and practitioner level, were compared before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Result(s): A total of 27,043 patients and 191 practices were included, 23,903 in cohort 1 and 25,092 in cohort 2. The fraction of patients lost to follow-up attributable to the pandemic was 28% [95% Confidence Interval: 25%, 30%]. At patient level, regular measurements of weight, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure and serum creatinine were less frequent during the pandemic. At the practitioner level, fewer patients reached the target of an HbA1c value <=7% and a blood pressure value of <140/90mmHg during the pandemic. However, more patients had an LDL-cholesterol value of <2.6 mmol/l. Although higher HbA1c values were observed in the months after lockdown, values converged to the same level for both cohorts by the end of the follow-up period. Conclusion(s): A considerable quality drop in diabetes mellitus care could be observed during the pandemic (17 March 2020-16 March 2021). However, HbA1c values converged to the same level for both cohorts at the end of the observation period. Thus, the long-term effect on relevant outcomes has not yet been visible.

3.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 13(2): 267-271, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246125

ABSTRACT

Objective: The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to have a profound effect worldwide. However, COVID-19 induced oral facial manifestations have not been fully described. We conducted a prospective study to demonstrate feasibility of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and inflammatory cytokine detection in saliva. Our primary objective was to determine whether COVID-19 PCR positive patients with xerostomia or loss of taste had altered serum or saliva cytokine levels compared to COVID-19 PCR positive patients without those oral symptoms. Our secondary objective was to determine the correlation between serum and saliva COVID-19 antibody levels. Materials and methods: For cytokine analysis, saliva and serum were obtained from 17 participants with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection at three sequential time points, yielding 48 saliva samples and 19 paired saliva-serum samples from 14 of the 17 patients. For COVID-19 antibody analyses, an additional 27 paired saliva-serum samples from 22 patients were purchased. Results: The saliva antibody assay had 88.64% sensitivity [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 75.44%, 96.21%] to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies compared to serum antibody. Among the inflammatory cytokines assessed - IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-13, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7 and IL-17A, xerostomia correlated with lower levels of saliva IL-2 and TNF-α, and elevated levels of serum IL-12p70 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). Loss of taste was observed in patients with elevated serum IL-8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Further studies are needed to construct a robust saliva-based COVID-19 assay to assess antibody and inflammatory cytokine response, which has potential utility as a non-invasive monitoring modality during COVID-19 convalescence.

4.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:226, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956761

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Concerned by the alarming levels of spread and severity, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic. The disease has spread worldwide and there have been 65.8 million reported cases and 1.5 million deaths as of insert date. Dental professionals and patients may be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses that may infect the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the salivary viral load using oral antiseptic mouthwashes in patients testing positive for COVID-19. Methods: Sixty-three individuals were recruited after testing positive for COVID-19 by real-time RT-PCR assay and divided into five groups. Group 1 received sterile water, group 2 received 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution (HP), group 3 received 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), group 4 received 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO), and group 5 received sequential rinses using CHX and HP. After collecting the initial saliva sample, individuals were asked to use the designated mouthwash for 1 min. Additional saliva samples were collected immediately after rinsing, 15 and 30 min after rinsing. Real-time RT-PCR assays for RNA detection of SARS-CoV-2 were performed on the saliva samples. Results: Compared to the baseline values, there was a significant reduction in the number of copies of SARS-Cov-2 after 30 min in Group 2, and immediately after the initial mouthwash in Group 4. There were no significant differences among the experimental groups and the control group in any period. Conclusions: Although the mouthwashes containing 0.1% NaClO or 1.5% HP reduced the viral load compared to the baseline values, there were no significant differences compared to the control group.

5.
International Review of Information Ethics ; 30:12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1679053

ABSTRACT

Two renowned Cuban scientists and professors who arrived in Brazil in the last decade of the last century, completed their doctorates at USP and expanded their professional achievements in the country, share in a relaxed way their knowledge and experiences about Science, Technology, Communication and Ethics in the times of COVID-19 in Latin America. One of them from the Exact Sciences area, Efrain Pantaleon Matamoros;and the other from Social Sciences, Felipe Chibas Ortiz. The views of these two Latin American researchers - who have previously written an article together on Innovation Management - now speak of these themes from the perspectives of different sciences, in an enriching way - relevant to the context of the 'new-normal' during the times of Covid-19. This article, presented as an interview, reflects on what these two experts have to say about Science, Technology, Innovation, Communication and Ethics in the days of COVID-19 in Latin America, from their unique perspectives.

6.
Revista Espanola De Salud Publica ; 95:12, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1615137

ABSTRACT

Background: Workers and residents of care facilities for elder people/people with disabilities were particularly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers from these cen-tres were included as a priority group for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.The Family Ministry of Castilla y Leon reali-zed a seroprevalence survey measuring the humoral immuni-ty of its workers after the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In February and March 2021, IgM/IgG antibodies were measured in 7 social health care centers in a total of 1,085 workers at least 15 days after completing the vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/ BioNtech. Using the ELISA technique for anti-nucleo-capsid (N) IgM and CLIA S-RBD SARS-CoV-2 for anti-spicule (S) IgG, titers were compared between vaccinated with cero, one or two doses, and differentiating in these subgroups between having passed or not COVID-19. Means and percentages were compared using Student's t and Chi2 (EPIDAT 3.1). Results: Among the 1,085 workers studied, there were 54 workers with a single dose of vaccine, of which 51 (94%) had a positive IgG (average titers of 459 AU/mL), 951 workers with 2 doses, of which 949 (99.8%) showed positive IgG (mean titers of 677 AU/mL), and 80 unvaccinated workers, of which 51 (64%) had positve IgG (mean titers of 49 AU/mL). 7 cases of COVID-19 were notified at least 15 days after full vaccination. The titers were significantly higher if COVID-19 had been passed in the group vaccinated with 1 and 2 doses (259 vs 894 and 601 vs 1,085 AU/mL respectively, p<0.05), but not in the unvaccinated group (53 vs 34 AU/mL, p>0.05). Conclusions: 99.8% of social health workers who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNtech, and 94% of those who received 1 single dose, pre-sented humoral immunity with high IgG titers, with high clinical effectiveness expressed in the absence of cases. 64% of unvaccinated workers presented humoral immunity. The history of having passed COVID-19 produces an important booster effect both after one and after two doses of vaccine. Measurement of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 could be considered as a parameter for sufficient immunity.

7.
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica ; 95:25, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Workers and residents of care facilities for elder people/people with disabilities were particularly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers from these centres were included as a priority group for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The Family Ministry of Castilla y Leon realized a seroprevalence survey measuring the humoral immunity of its workers after the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In February and March 2021, IgM/IgG antibodies were measured in 7 social health care centers in a total of 1,085 workers at least 15 days after completing the vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNtech. Using the ELISA technique for anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgM and CLIA S-RBD SARS-CoV-2 for anti-spicule (S) IgG, titers were compared between vaccinated with cero, one or two doses, and differentiating in these subgroups between having passed or not COVID-19. Means and percentages were compared using Student's t and Chi2 (EPIDAT 3.1). RESULTS: Among the 1,085 workers studied, there were 54 workers with a single dose of vaccine, of which 51 (94%) had a positive IgG (average titers of 459 AU/mL), 951 workers with 2 doses, of which 949 (99.8%) showed positive IgG (mean titers of 677 AU/mL), and 80 unvaccinated workers, of which 51 (64%) had positve IgG (mean titers of 49 AU/mL). 7 cases of COVID-19 were notified at least 15 days after full vaccination. The titers were significantly higher if COVID-19 had been passed in the group vaccinated with 1 and 2 doses (259 vs 894 and 601 vs 1,085 AU/mL respectively, p<0.05), but not in the unvaccinated group (53 vs 34 AU/mL, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 99.8% of social health workers who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNtech, and 94% of those who received 1 single dose, presented humoral immunity with high IgG titers, with high clinical effectiveness expressed in the absence of cases. 64% of unvaccinated workers presented humoral immunity. The history of having passed COVID-19 produces an important booster effect both after one and after two doses of vaccine. Measurement of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 could be considered as a parameter for sufficient immunity.

8.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277030

ABSTRACT

Background: Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) have been demonstrated to be hyperactive in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and to contribute to reduced airway surface liquid, mucus dehydration and airway mucus accumulation. An antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) which inhibits murine αENaC expression was demonstrated to be efficacious in two different mouse models of CF. ION-827359 is a chemically modified ASO, 16 nucleotides in length with a phosphorothioate backbone and constrained ethyl (cEt) modifications. In healthy volunteers the ASO was found to decrease ENaC mRNA expression in bronchial brushings by a mean of 56%.Methods: This ascending dose trial was conducted in three parts, the first two of which were in healthy volunteers. The third part of this trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multiple ascending dose (MAD) study in patients with CF. Patients were allowed to stay on their usual CF medications throughout the trial. The primary objective was the evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of ION-827359 delivered via a Pari eFlow © mesh nebulizer. A total of 33 subjects in 4 cohorts received doses of 10, 37.5, 75, or 100 mg once weekly for 4 doses, with an additional dose administered during the first week. Subjects were followed for 13 weeks after dosing. Results: ION-827359 was well-tolerated with an acceptable safety profile after multiple inhalations. The rate of adverse events was similar between ION-827359 and placebo treated groups. There were no clinically relevant changes in chemistry, hematology, urinalysis, ECG, or vital signs. There were no drug related serious adverse events or discontinuations due to adverse events although three subjects discontinued early due to concerns about COVID-19. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated low systemic exposure with a plasma half-life of approximately 2 weeks. Spirometry showed a numerical dose dependent increase in FEV1 at the end of the 4-week treatment period (4.5% difference for 100mg group from placebo). Conclusions: These results demonstrate strong evidence of tolerability and safety at the doses and regimens tested and supports further investigation of ENaC ASO ION-827359 in patients with cystic fibrosis.

9.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 26(9):2276-2278, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1076424

ABSTRACT

We found that environmental conditions affect the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasal mucus and sputum. The virus is more stable at low-temperature and low-humidity conditions, whereas warmer temperature and higher humidity shortened half-life. Although infectious virus was undetectable after 48 hours, viral RNA remained detectable for 7 days.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL