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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786061

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population and the resulting COVID-19 pandemic have led to the development of various diagnostic tests. The OraSure InteliSwab™ COVID-19 Rapid Test is a recently developed and FDA emergency use-authorized rapid antigen-detecting test that functions as a lateral flow device targeting the nucleocapsid protein. Due to SARS-CoV-2 evolution, there is a need to evaluate the sensitivity of rapid antigen-detecting tests for new variants, especially variants of concern such as Omicron. In this study, the sensitivity of the OraSure InteliSwab™ Test was investigated using cultured strains of the known variants of concern (VOCs, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) and the ancestral lineage (lineage A). Based on dilution series in cell culture medium, an approximate limit of detection for each variant was determined. The OraSure InteliSwab™ Test showed an overall comparable performance using recombinant nucleocapsid protein and different cultured variants, with recorded limits of detection ranging between 3.77 × 105 and 9.13 × 105 RNA copies/mL. Finally, the sensitivity was evaluated using oropharyngeal swabs from Syrian golden hamsters inoculated with the six VOCs. Ultimately, the OraSure InteliSwab™ COVID-19 Rapid Test showed no decrease in sensitivity between the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain and any VOCs including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(2): 213-223, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621245

ABSTRACT

The major transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is airborne. However, previous studies could not elucidate the contribution between large droplets and aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Here, we designed and validated an optimized transmission caging setup, which allows for the assessment of aerosol transmission efficiency at various distances. At a distance of 2 m, only particles of <5 µm traversed between cages. Using this setup, we investigated the relative efficiency of aerosol transmission between the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) and lineage A in Syrian hamsters. Aerosol transmission of both variants was confirmed in all sentinels after 24 h of exposure as demonstrated by respiratory virus shedding and seroconversion. Productive transmission also occurred after 1 h of exposure, highlighting the efficiency of this transmission route. Interestingly, after donors were infected with a mix of both variants, the Alpha variant outcompeted the lineage A variant in an airborne transmission chain. Overall, these data indicate that a lower infectious dose of the Alpha variant, compared to lineage A, could be sufficient for successful transmission. This highlights the continuous need to assess emerging variants and the development for pre-emptive transmission mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aerosols , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
4.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292809

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure development. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the human SARS-CoV-2 receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [hACE2]) under a cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18) are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and that infection resulted in a dose-dependent lethal disease course. After inoculation with either 10 (4) TCID (50) or 10 (5) TCID (50) , the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in rapid weight loss in both groups and uniform lethality in the 10 (5) TCID (50) group. High levels of viral RNA shedding were observed from the upper and lower respiratory tract and intermittent shedding was observed from the intestinal tract. Inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in upper and lower respiratory tract infection with high infectious virus titers in nasal turbinates, trachea and lungs. The observed interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary pathology, with SARS-CoV-2 replication evident in pneumocytes, were similar to that reported in severe cases of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs and upregulation of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Extrapulmonary replication of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of several animals at 7 DPI but not at 3 DPI. The rapid inflammatory response and observed pathology bears resemblance to COVID-19. Taken together, this suggests that this mouse model can be useful for studies of pathogenesis and medical countermeasure development. AUTHORS SUMMARY: The disease manifestation of COVID-19 in humans range from asymptomatic to severe. While several mild to moderate disease models have been developed, there is still a need for animal models that recapitulate the severe and fatal progression observed in a subset of patients. Here, we show that humanized transgenic mice developed dose-dependent disease when inoculated with SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. The mice developed upper and lower respiratory tract infection, with virus replication also in the brain after day 3 post inoculation. The pathological and immunological diseases manifestation observed in these mice bears resemblance to human COVID-19, suggesting increased usefulness of this model for elucidating COVID-19 pathogenesis further and testing of countermeasures, both of which are urgently needed.

5.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292763

ABSTRACT

Decontamination of objects and surfaces can limit transmission of infectious agents via fomites or biological samples. It is required for the safe re-use of potentially contaminated personal protective equipment and medical and laboratory equipment. Heat treatment is widely used for the inactivation of various infectious agents, notably viruses. We show that for liquid specimens (here suspension of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture medium), virus inactivation rate under heat treatment at 70°C can vary by almost two orders of magnitude depending on the treatment procedure, from a half-life of 0.86 min (95% credible interval: [0.09, 1.77]) in closed vials in a heat block to 37.0 min ([12.65, 869.82]) in uncovered plates in a dry oven. These findings suggest a critical role of evaporation in virus inactivation using dry heat. Placing samples in open or uncovered containers may dramatically reduce the speed and efficacy of heat treatment for virus inactivation. Heating procedures must be carefully specified when reporting experimental studies to facilitate result interpretation and reproducibility, and carefully considered when designing decontamination guidelines.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5868, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462005

ABSTRACT

We investigated ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in Syrian hamsters. We previously showed protection against SARS-CoV-2 disease and pneumonia in hamsters vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Here, we observe a 9.5-fold reduction of virus neutralizing antibody titer in vaccinated hamster sera against B.1.351 compared to B.1.1.7. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 do not lose weight compared to control animals. In contrast to control animals, the lungs of vaccinated animals do not show any gross lesions. Minimal to no viral subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) and no infectious virus can be detected in lungs of vaccinated animals. Histopathological evaluation shows extensive pulmonary pathology caused by B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 replication in the control animals, but none in the vaccinated animals. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against clinical disease caused by B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 3): 150766, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458624

ABSTRACT

Infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to be collected in wastewater from mucus, sputum, and feces of infected individuals, raising questions about the appropriate handling and treatment of the resulting wastewater. Current evidence indicates the likelihood of waterborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission is low; nonetheless, confirming the efficacy of disinfection against SARS-CoV-2 is prudent to ensure multiple barriers of protection for infectious SARS-CoV-2 that could be present in municipal and hospital wastewater. Sodium hypochlorite (free chlorine) is widely used for pathogen control in water disinfection applications. In the current study, we investigated the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in DI water and municipal wastewater primary influent by sodium hypochlorite (free chlorine) addition. Our results showed rapid disinfection of SARS-CoV-2, with less than 1 mg-min/L required for >3 log10 TCID50 reduction in DI water. More than 5 mg-min/L was required for 3 log10 TCID50 reduction in primary influent, suggesting potential shielding of the virus by suspended solids. These results are consistent with expected virus inactivation by free chlorine and suggest the adequacy of free chlorine disinfection for inactivation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in water matrices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite , Water
8.
Elife ; 102021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389776

ABSTRACT

Ambient temperature and humidity strongly affect inactivation rates of enveloped viruses, but a mechanistic, quantitative theory of these effects has been elusive. We measure the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on an inert surface at nine temperature and humidity conditions and develop a mechanistic model to explain and predict how temperature and humidity alter virus inactivation. We find SARS-CoV-2 survives longest at low temperatures and extreme relative humidities (RH); median estimated virus half-life is >24 hr at 10°C and 40% RH, but ∼1.5 hr at 27°C and 65% RH. Our mechanistic model uses fundamental chemistry to explain why inactivation rate increases with increased temperature and shows a U-shaped dependence on RH. The model accurately predicts existing measurements of five different human coronaviruses, suggesting that shared mechanisms may affect stability for many viruses. The results indicate scenarios of high transmission risk, point to mitigation strategies, and advance the mechanistic study of virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Humidity , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19 , Humans
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367918

ABSTRACT

Many different vaccine candidates against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, are currently approved and under development. Vaccine platforms vary from mRNA vaccines to viral-vectored vaccines, and several candidates have been shown to produce humoral and cellular responses in small animal models, non-human primates, and human volunteers. In this study, six non-human primates received a prime-boost intramuscular vaccination with 4 µg of mRNA vaccine candidate CV07050101, which encodes a pre-fusion stabilized spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Boost vaccination was performed 28 days post prime vaccination. As a control, six animals were similarly injected with PBS. Humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated at time of vaccination, and two weeks afterwards. No antibodies could be detected at two and four weeks after prime vaccination. Two weeks after boost vaccination, binding but no neutralizing antibodies were detected in four out of six non-human primates. SARS-CoV-2 S protein-specific T cell responses were detected in these four animals. In conclusion, prime-boost vaccination with 4 µg of vaccine candidate CV07050101 resulted in limited immune responses in four out of six non-human primates.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization Schedule , Macaca mulatta , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(19): e0031421, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319372

ABSTRACT

Decontamination helps limit environmental transmission of infectious agents. It is required for the safe reuse of contaminated medical, laboratory, and personal protective equipment, and for the safe handling of biological samples. Heat treatment is a common decontamination method, notably used for viruses. We show that for liquid specimens (here, solution of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture medium), the virus inactivation rate under heat treatment at 70°C can vary by almost two orders of magnitude depending on the treatment procedure, from a half-life of 0.86 min (95% credible interval [CI] 0.09, 1.77) in closed vials in a heat block to 37.04 min (95% CI 12.64, 869.82) in uncovered plates in a dry oven. These findings suggest a critical role of evaporation in virus inactivation via dry heat. Placing samples in open or uncovered containers may dramatically reduce the speed and efficacy of heat treatment for virus inactivation. Given these findings, we reviewed the literature on temperature-dependent coronavirus stability and found that specimen container types, along with whether they are closed, covered, or uncovered, are rarely reported in the scientific literature. Heat-treatment procedures must be fully specified when reporting experimental studies to facilitate result interpretation and reproducibility, and must be carefully considered when developing decontamination guidelines. IMPORTANCE Heat is a powerful weapon against most infectious agents. It is widely used for decontamination of medical, laboratory, and personal protective equipment, and for biological samples. There are many methods of heat treatment, and methodological details can affect speed and efficacy of decontamination. We applied four different heat-treatment procedures to liquid specimens containing SARS-CoV-2. Our results show that the container used to store specimens during decontamination can substantially affect inactivation rate; for a given initial level of contamination, decontamination time can vary from a few minutes in closed vials to several hours in uncovered plates. Reviewing the literature, we found that container choices and heat treatment methods are only rarely reported explicitly in methods sections. Our study shows that careful consideration of heat-treatment procedure-in particular the choice of specimen container and whether it is covered-can make results more consistent across studies, improve decontamination practice, and provide insight into the mechanisms of virus inactivation.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Hot Temperature , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Decontamination/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1284-1292, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268056

ABSTRACT

The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). It is currently unclear whether the previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection with VOCs. Here, we show that low dose aerosol exposure to hCoV-19/human/USA/WA-CDC-WA1/2020 (WA1, lineage A), resulted in a productive mild infection. In contrast, a low dose of SARS-CoV-2 via fomites did not result in productive infection in the majority of exposed hamsters and these animals remained non-seroconverted. After recovery, hamsters were re-exposed to hCoV-19/South African/KRISP-K005325/2020 (VOC B.1.351) via an intranasal challenge. Seroconverted rechallenged animals did not lose weight and shed virus for three days. They had a little infectious virus and no pathology in the lungs. In contrast, shedding, weight loss and extensive pulmonary pathology caused by B.1.351 replication were observed in the non-seroconverted animals. The rechallenged seroconverted animals did not transmit the virus to naïve sentinels via direct contact transmission, in contrast to the non-seroconverted animals. Reinfection with B.1.351 triggered an anamnestic response that boosted not only neutralizing titres against lineage A, but also titres against B.1.351. Our results confirm that aerosol exposure is a more efficient infection route than fomite exposure. Furthermore, initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A does not prevent heterologous reinfection with B.1.351 but prevents disease and onward transmission. These data suggest that previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure induces partial protective immunity. The reinfection generated a broadly neutralizing humoral response capable of effectively neutralizing B.1.351 while maintaining its ability to neutralize the virus to which the initial response was directed against.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Replication
12.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 32, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146187

ABSTRACT

Lassa virus (LASV) infects hundreds of thousands of individuals each year, highlighting the need for the accelerated development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. To date, no vaccine has been licensed for LASV. ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Josiah strain LASV glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene. In the following study, we show that ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC is immunogenic, inducing robust T-cell and antibody responses in mice. Furthermore, a single dose of ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC fully protects Hartley guinea pigs against morbidity and mortality following lethal challenge with a guinea pig-adapted LASV (strain Josiah). By contrast, control vaccinated animals reached euthanasia criteria 10-12 days after infection. Limited amounts of LASV RNA were detected in the tissues of vaccinated animals. Viable LASV was detected in only one animal receiving a single dose of the vaccine. A prime-boost regimen of ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC in guinea pigs significantly increased antigen-specific antibody titers and cleared viable LASV from the tissues. These data support further development of ChAdOx1-Lassa-GPC and testing in non-human primate models of infection.

13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009195, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034958

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure development. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the human SARS-CoV-2 receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [hACE2]) under a cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18) are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and that infection resulted in a dose-dependent lethal disease course. After inoculation with either 104 TCID50 or 105 TCID50, the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in rapid weight loss in both groups and uniform lethality in the 105 TCID50 group. High levels of viral RNA shedding were observed from the upper and lower respiratory tract and intermittent shedding was observed from the intestinal tract. Inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in upper and lower respiratory tract infection with high infectious virus titers in nasal turbinates, trachea and lungs. The observed interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary pathology, with SARS-CoV-2 replication evident in pneumocytes, were similar to that reported in severe cases of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs and upregulation of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Extrapulmonary replication of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of several animals at 7 DPI but not at 3 DPI. The rapid inflammatory response and observed pathology bears resemblance to COVID-19. Additionally, we demonstrate that a mild disease course can be simulated by low dose infection with 102 TCID50 SARS-CoV-2, resulting in minimal clinical manifestation and near uniform survival. Taken together, these data support future application of this model to studies of pathogenesis and medical countermeasure development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Keratin-18/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Keratin-18/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/immunology , Trachea/virology
14.
Sci Adv ; 6(24): eaba8399, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617060

ABSTRACT

Developing a vaccine to protect against the lethal effects of the many strains of coronavirus is critical given the current global pandemic. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), we show that rhesus macaques seroconverted rapidly after a single intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 MERS. The vaccine protected against respiratory injury and pneumonia and reduced viral load in lung tissue by several orders of magnitude. MERS-CoV replication in type I and II pneumocytes of ChAdOx1 MERS-vaccinated animals was absent. A prime-boost regimen of ChAdOx1 MERS boosted antibody titers, and viral replication was completely absent from the respiratory tract tissue of these rhesus macaques. We also found that antibodies elicited by ChAdOx1 MERS in rhesus macaques neutralized six different MERS-CoV strains. Transgenic human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 mice vaccinated with ChAdOx1 MERS were completely protected against disease and lethality for all different MERS-CoV strains. The data support further clinical development of ChAdOx1 MERS.


Subject(s)
Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574540

ABSTRACT

We found that environmental conditions affect the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasal mucus and sputum. The virus is more stable at low-temperature and low-humidity conditions, whereas warmer temperature and higher humidity shortened half-life. Although infectious virus was undetectable after 48 hours, viral RNA remained detectable for 7 days.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Mucus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sputum/virology , COVID-19 , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pandemics , RNA Stability , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505770

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has created worldwide shortages of N95 respirators. We analyzed 4 decontamination methods for effectiveness in deactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and effect on respirator function. Our results indicate that N95 respirators can be decontaminated and reused, but the integrity of respirator fit and seal must be maintained.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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