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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to emergency measures to continue patient care and research at a comprehensive cancer center while protecting both employees and patients. Determining exposure and infection rates with SARS-CoV-2 were important to adjust workplace policies over time. METHODS: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has over 7,000 employees. Participation was voluntary. After consent, participants completed questionnaire of demographics, exposures and risk factors for COVID-19 illness at each time point (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months) along with blood draws for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Primary measure was determination of titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG over time. RESULTS: In total, 745 employees enrolled from May 2020 to February 2021 (mean [SD] age, 40[14] years; 572[80%] women). From May to July 2020, 47 of 519 employees (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-12.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies. Three months later, 40 of 428 employees had positive antibodies (8.5%, 95% CI 6.0-11.0%) with 17 newly positive. At month 6, 78.5% of participants reported having received at least one dose of vaccine and the positivity rate for those vaccinated was 98% (95% CI, 95-100%). Spike protein IgG titers for those vaccinated were 7.9 times higher than participants not vaccinated (median IgG titer = 0.28 for positive antibody but not vaccinated versus 2.2 for vaccinated) but demonstrate evidence of waning over time. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity remained less than 10% at a single comprehensive cancer center prior to vaccination and there is evidence of waning IgG titers over time after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding asymptomatic COVID-19 among people with HIV (PWH). Data on a representative subset of PWH enrolled in REPRIEVE, a global clinical trial are presented here. METHODS: REPRIEVE is an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention trial among 7,770 PWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beginning April 2020, targeted data on COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms were collected during routine trial visits. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as either COVID-19 clinical diagnosis or presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgA RBD protein (anti-spike) antibodies in the absence of prior COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The group (N=2,464) had a median age 53 years, 35% female sex, 47% Black or African American race, median CD4 count 649 c/mm3, and 97% with HIV VL <400 cp/m. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 318 persons (13%): 58 with clinical diagnosis and 260 with detectable antibodies. Of these PWH, 304 completed symptom questionnaires: 121 (40%) reported symptoms, but 183 (60%) were asymptomatic. PWH with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be from Low or Middle Income Regions, of Black or African American race, older in age, and with higher ASCVD risk score. Symptomatic COVID was more common with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and low HDL levels. CD4 counts and HIV viral suppression rates were similar among PWH with symptomatic vs. asymptomatic COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is common among ART-treated PWH globally. We determined that 60% of infections in PWH were asymptomatic. HIV clinicians must remain vigilant about COVID-19 testing among PWH to identify asymptomatic cases.

3.
Sci Immunol ; : eabo0226, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769818

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should induce broadly cross-reactive humoral and T cell responses to protect against emerging variants of concern (VOCs). Here, we inactivated the furin-cleavage site (FCS) of spike expressed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus vaccine (MVA/SdFCS) and found that FCS inactivation markedly increased spike binding to human ACE2. Following vaccination of mice, the MVA/SdFCS vaccine induced 8-fold higher neutralizing antibodies compared to MVA/S, which expressed spike without FCS inactivation, and protected against the beta variant. We next added nucleocapsid to the MVA/SdFCS vaccine (MVA/SdFCS-N) and tested its immunogenicity and efficacy via intramuscular (IM), buccal (BU) or sublingual (SL) routes in rhesus macaques. IM vaccination induced spike-specific IgG in serum and mucosae (nose, throat, lung, rectum) which neutralized the homologous (WA-1/2020) and heterologous VOCs, including delta, with minimal loss (<2-fold) of activity. IM vaccination also induced both S and N specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the blood. In contrast, the SL and BU vaccinations induced less spike-specific IgG in secretions and lower levels of polyfunctional IgG in serum compared to IM vaccination. Following challenge with SARS-CoV-2 delta variant, the IM route induced robust protection, BU moderate protection and the SL no protection. Vaccine-induced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody effector functions positively correlated with protection, but only the effector functions correlated with early protection. Thus, IM vaccination with MVA/SdFCS-N vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses, protecting against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 VOC more effectively than other routes of vaccination.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm2311, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765074

ABSTRACT

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the post-boost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimating the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for setting public health policies. We leveraged de-identified Massachusetts newborn screening specimens to generate an accessible, retrospective source of maternal antibodies for estimating statewide SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a non-test-seeking population. METHODS: We analyzed 72,117 newborn dried blood spots collected from November 2019 through December 2020, representing 337 towns and cities across Massachusetts. Seroprevalence was estimated for the general Massachusetts population after correcting for imperfect test specificity and nonrepresentative sampling using Bayesian multilevel regression and poststratification. RESULTS: Statewide seroprevalence was estimated to be 0.03% (90% credible interval (CI) [0.00, 0.11]) in November 2019 and rose to 1.47% (90% CI [1.00, 2.13]) by May 2020, following sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the spring. Seroprevalence plateaued from May onwards, reaching 2.15% (90% CI [1.56, 2.98]) in December 2020. Seroprevalence varied substantially by community and was particularly associated with community percent non-Hispanic Black (ß = 0.024, 90% CI [0.004, 0.044]); i.e., a 10% increase in community percent non-Hispanic Black was associated with a 27% higher odds of seropositivity. Seroprevalence estimates had good concordance with reported case counts and wastewater surveillance for most of 2020, prior to the resurgence of transmission in winter. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 protective antibody in Massachusetts was low as of December 2020, indicating that a substantial fraction of the population was still susceptible. Maternal seroprevalence data from newborn screening can inform longitudinal trends and identify cities and towns at highest risk, particularly in settings where widespread diagnostic testing is unavailable.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313773

ABSTRACT

The robust protection conferred by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines represents a critical milestone in the COVID-19 vaccine development. However, the emergence of variants has inspired renewed concern related to the protective efficacy of currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. However, emerging data suggest that antibody functions, beyond neutralization, may contribute to protection from disease. Thus, here we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). While neutralizing antibody responses are affected by VOCs, antibodies generated after infection exhibited robust binding to VOCs but compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies bound robustly to VOCs and continued interacting with Fc-receptors and mediated antibody effector functions. These data point to a previously unappreciated resilience in the mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to provide protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.Trial Registration: This work used samples from the phase 1, dose-escalation, open-labelclinical trial designed to determine the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 (mRNA-1273 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461 mRNA-1273 study;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483).Funding: We acknowledge support from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness (MassCPR), the NIH (3R37AI080289-11S1, R01AI146785, U19AI42790-01, U19AI135995-02, U19AI42790-01, 1U01CA260476 – 01, CIVIC75N93019C00052), the Gates Foundation Global Health Vaccine Accelerator Platform funding (OPP1146996 and INV-001650), Translational Research Institute for Space Health through NASA Cooperative Agreement (NNX16AO69A), and the Musk Foundation. This work used samples from the phase 1 mRNA-1273 study (NCT04283461;DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483). The mRNA-1273 phase 1 study was sponsored and primarily funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. This trial has been funded in part with federal funds from the NIAID under grant awards UM1AI148373, to Kaiser Washington;UM1AI148576, UM1AI148684, and NIH P51 OD011132, to Emory University;NIH AID AI149644, and contract award HHSN272201500002C, to Emmes. Funding for the manufacture of mRNA-1273 phase 1 material was provided by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation.Declaration of Interest: G.A. is a founder of Seromyx Systems Inc. A.C. is employee of Moderna Inc. D.D., P.M., A.S.M, and E.R.M. are employees of Space Exploration Technologies Corp. All other authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.Ethical Approval: The MGH IRB reviewed the ethics protocol for secondary use under record 2020P004042 and the project was deemed Not Human Research.

7.
PLoS Biol ; 20(2): e3001531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686076

ABSTRACT

Identifying the potential for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is crucial for understanding possible long-term epidemic dynamics. We analysed longitudinal PCR and serological testing data from a prospective cohort of 4,411 United States employees in 4 states between April 2020 and February 2021. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression investigating the association between baseline serological status and subsequent PCR test result in order to calculate an odds ratio for reinfection. We estimated an odds ratio for reinfection ranging from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.019 to 0.63) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.05 to 1.1), implying that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline is associated with around 72% to 86% reduced odds of a subsequent PCR positive test based on our point estimates. This suggests that primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection in the majority of individuals, at least over a 6-month time period. We also highlight 2 major sources of bias and uncertainty to be considered when estimating the relative risk of reinfection, confounders and the choice of baseline time point, and show how to account for both in reinfection analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Reinfection/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
mBio ; : e0214121, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650754

ABSTRACT

As public health guidelines throughout the world have relaxed in response to vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 will remain endemic, fueled by the rise of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, in the setting of waning natural and vaccine immunity, reinfections have emerged across the globe, even among previously infected and vaccinated individuals. As such, the ability to detect reexposure to and reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 is a key component for global protection against this virus and, more importantly, against the potential emergence of vaccine escape mutations. Accordingly, there is a strong and continued need for the development and deployment of simple methods to detect emerging hot spots of reinfection to inform targeted pandemic response and containment, including targeted and specific deployment of vaccine booster campaigns. In this study, we identify simple, rapid immune biomarkers of reinfection in rhesus macaques, including IgG3 antibody levels against nucleocapsid and FcγR2A receptor binding activity of anti-RBD antibodies, that are recapitulated in human reinfection cases. As such, this cross-species analysis underscores the potential utility of simple antibody titers and function as price-effective and scalable markers of reinfection to provide increased resolution and resilience against new outbreaks. IMPORTANCE As public health and social distancing guidelines loosen in the setting of waning global natural and vaccine immunity, a deeper understanding of the immunological response to reexposure and reinfection to this highly contagious pathogen is necessary to maintain public health. Viral sequencing analysis provides a robust but unrealistic means to monitor reinfection globally. The identification of scalable pathogen-specific biomarkers of reexposure and reinfection, however, could significantly accelerate our capacity to monitor the spread of the virus through naive and experienced hosts, providing key insights into mechanisms of disease attenuation. Using a nonhuman primate model of controlled SARS-CoV-2 reexposure, we deeply probed the humoral immune response following rechallenge with various doses of viral inocula. We identified virus-specific humoral biomarkers of reinfection, with significant increases in antibody titer and function upon rechallenge across a range of humoral features, including IgG1 to the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (RBD), IgG3 to the nucleocapsid protein (N), and FcγR2A receptor binding to anti-RBD antibodies. These features not only differentiated primary infection from reexposure and reinfection in monkeys but also were recapitulated in a sequencing-confirmed reinfection patient and in a cohort of putatively reinfected humans that evolved a PCR-positive test in spite of preexisting seropositivity. As such, this cross-species analysis using a controlled primate model and human cohorts reveals increases in antibody titers as promising cross-validated serological markers of reinfection and reexposure.

9.
Blood Adv ; 6(6): 1671-1683, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649450

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia worldwide, is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. Previous studies suggest only a portion of vaccinated CLL patients develop severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antibodies. Whether the elicited antibodies are functional and/or accompanied by functional T-cell responses is unknown. This prospective cohort study included patients with CLL who received SARS-CoV-2 and PCV13 vaccines (not concurrently). The primary cohort included adults with CLL off therapy. Coprimary outcomes were serologic response to SARS-CoV-2 (receptor binding domain [RBD] immunoassay) and PCV13 vaccines (23-serotype IgG assay). Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their functional activity and assessment of functional T-cell responses was performed. Sixty percent (18/30) of patients demonstrated serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, appearing more frequent among treatment-naïve patients (72%). Among treatment-naïve patients, an absolute lymphocyte count ≤24 000/µL was associated with serologic response (94% vs 14%; P < .001). On interferon-γ release assays, 80% (16/20) of patients had functional spike-specific T-cell responses, including 78% (7/9) with a negative RBD immunoassay, a group enriched for prior B-cell-depleting therapies. A bead-based multiplex immunoassay identified antibodies against wild-type and variant SARS-CoV-2 (α, ß, γ, and δ) in all tested patients and confirmed Fc-receptor binding and effector functions of these antibodies. Of 11 patients with negative RBD immunoassay after vaccination, 6 (55%) responded to an additional mRNA-based vaccine dose. The PCV13 serologic response rate was 29% (8/28). Our data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces functional T-cell and antibody responses in patients with CLL and provides the framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms and clinical benefit of these responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT05007860.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Immunity ; 55(2): 355-365.e4, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611777

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines confer robust protection against COVID-19, but the emergence of variants has generated concerns regarding the protective efficacy of the currently approved vaccines, which lose neutralizing potency against some variants. Emerging data suggest that antibody functions beyond neutralization may contribute to protection from the disease, but little is known about SARS-CoV-2 antibody effector functions. Here, we profiled the binding and functional capacity of convalescent antibodies and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibodies across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Although the neutralizing responses to VOCs decreased in both groups, the Fc-mediated responses were distinct. In convalescent individuals, although antibodies exhibited robust binding to VOCs, they showed compromised interactions with Fc-receptors. Conversely, vaccine-induced antibodies also bound robustly to VOCs but continued to interact with Fc-receptors and mediate antibody effector functions. These data point to a resilience in the mRNA-vaccine-induced humoral immune response that may continue to offer protection from SARS-CoV-2 VOCs independent of neutralization.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
11.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502534

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a key correlate of severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes while the role of obesity on risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptom phenotype, and immune response remain poorly defined. We examined data from a prospective SARS-CoV-2 cohort study to address these questions. Serostatus, body mass index, demographics, comorbidities, and prior COVID-19 compatible symptoms were assessed at baseline and serostatus and symptoms monthly thereafter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays included an IgG ELISA targeting the spike RBD, multiarray Luminex targeting 20 viral antigens, pseudovirus neutralization, and T cell ELISPOT assays. Our results from a large prospective SARS-CoV-2 cohort study indicate symptom phenotype is strongly influenced by obesity among younger but not older age groups; we did not identify evidence to suggest obese individuals are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; and remarkably homogenous immune activity across BMI categories suggests immune protection across these groups may be similar.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(617): eabi7428, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476378

ABSTRACT

There is a persistent bias toward higher prevalence and increased severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in males. Underlying mechanisms accounting for this sex difference remain incompletely understood. Interferon responses have been implicated as a modulator of COVID-19 disease in adults and play a key role in the placental antiviral response. Moreover, the interferon response has been shown to alter Fc receptor expression and therefore may affect placental antibody transfer. Here, we examined the intersection of maternal-fetal antibody transfer, viral-induced placental interferon responses, and fetal sex in pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Placental Fc receptor abundance, interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody transfer were interrogated in 68 human pregnancies. Sexually dimorphic expression of placental Fc receptors, ISGs and proteins, and interleukin-10 was observed after maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, with up-regulation of these features in placental tissue of pregnant individuals with male fetuses. Reduced maternal SARS-CoV-2­specific antibody titers and impaired placental antibody transfer were also observed in pregnancies with a male fetus. These results demonstrate fetal sex-specific maternal and placental adaptive and innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3587, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387350

ABSTRACT

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we developed a trimeric form of the RBD and show that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques. The trimeric form induces higher neutralizing antibody titer compared to monomer with as low as 1µg antigen dose. In mice, adjuvanting the protein with a TLR7/8 agonist formulation alum-3M-052 induces 100-fold higher neutralizing antibody titer and superior protection from infection compared to alum. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes significant loss of innate cells and pathology in the lung, and vaccination protects from changes in innate cells and lung pathology. These results demonstrate RBD trimer protein as a suitable candidate for vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Stearic Acids/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Stearic Acids/immunology
15.
Cell ; 184(3): 628-642.e10, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385216

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes more severe disease in pregnant women compared to age-matched non-pregnant women. Whether maternal infection causes changes in the transfer of immunity to infants remains unclear. Maternal infections have previously been associated with compromised placental antibody transfer, but the mechanism underlying this compromised transfer is not established. Here, we used systems serology to characterize the Fc profile of influenza-, pertussis-, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies transferred across the placenta. Influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies were actively transferred. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody transfer was significantly reduced compared to influenza- and pertussis-specific antibodies, and cord titers and functional activity were lower than in maternal plasma. This effect was only observed in third-trimester infection. SARS-CoV-2-specific transfer was linked to altered SARS-CoV-2-antibody glycosylation profiles and was partially rescued by infection-induced increases in IgG and increased FCGR3A placental expression. These results point to unexpected compensatory mechanisms to boost immunity in neonates, providing insights for maternal vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , THP-1 Cells
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329034

ABSTRACT

Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike protein trimers (preS dTM) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that the vaccinated NHP developed AS03-dependent multifunctional humoral responses that targeted distinct domains of the spike protein and bound to a variety of Fc receptors mediating immune cell effector functions in vitro. The neutralizing 50% inhibitory concentration titers for pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 were higher than titers for a panel of human convalescent serum samples. NHPs were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3 × 106 plaque forming units) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days after challenge, vaccinated NHPs showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Vaccinated NHPs also had increased spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days after challenge. Moreover, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to hamsters mediated protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine were sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs and that rapid anamnestic antibody responses in the lung may be a key mechanism for protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Immunization, Passive , Lung , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(6): 1561-1570, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological testing provides a record of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, but assay performance requires independent assessment. METHODS: We evaluated 3 commercial (Roche Diagnostics pan-IG, and Epitope Diagnostics IgM and IgG) and 2 non-commercial (Simoa and Ragon/MGH IgG) immunoassays against 1083 unique samples that included 251 PCR-positive and 832 prepandemic samples. RESULTS: The Roche assay registered the highest specificity 99.6% (3/832 false positives), the Ragon/MGH assay 99.5% (4/832), the primary Simoa assay model 99.0% (8/832), and the Epitope IgG and IgM 99.0% (8/830) and 99.5% (4/830), respectively. Overall sensitivities for the Simoa, Roche pan-IG, Epitope IgG, Ragon/MGH IgG, and Epitope IgM were 92.0%, 82.9%, 82.5%, 64.5% and 47.0%, respectively. The Simoa immunoassay demonstrated the highest sensitivity among samples stratified by days postsymptom onset (PSO), <8 days PSO (57.69%) 8-14 days PSO (93.51%), 15-21 days PSO (100%), and > 21 days PSO (95.18%). CONCLUSIONS: All assays demonstrated high to very high specificities while sensitivities were variable across assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Nature ; 594(7862): 253-258, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192479

ABSTRACT

The development of a portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative1. Here we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on an I53-50 protein nanoparticle scaffold (hereafter designated RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing-antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. We evaluated five adjuvants including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an α-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion; AS37, a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist adsorbed to alum; CpG1018-alum, a TLR9 agonist formulated in alum; and alum. RBD-NP immunization with AS03, CpG1018-alum, AS37 or alum induced substantial neutralizing-antibody and CD4 T cell responses, and conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and bronchoalveolar lavage. The neutralizing-antibody response to live virus was maintained up to 180 days after vaccination with RBD-NP in AS03 (RBD-NP-AS03), and correlated with protection from infection. RBD-NP immunization cross-neutralized the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant efficiently but showed a reduced response against the B.1.351 variant. RBD-NP-AS03 produced a 4.5-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351 whereas the group immunized with RBD-NP-AS37 produced a 16-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351, suggesting differences in the breadth of the neutralizing-antibody response induced by these adjuvants. Furthermore, RBD-NP-AS03 was as immunogenic as a prefusion-stabilized spike immunogen (HexaPro) with AS03 adjuvant. These data highlight the efficacy of the adjuvanted RBD-NP vaccine in promoting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and have led to phase I/II clinical trials of this vaccine (NCT04742738 and NCT04750343).


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Alum Compounds , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Squalene
20.
Immunity ; 54(3): 542-556.e9, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101300

ABSTRACT

A combination of vaccination approaches will likely be necessary to fully control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we show that modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion stabilized spike (MVA/S) but not secreted S1 induced strong neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. In macaques, the MVA/S vaccination induced strong neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cell responses, and conferred protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus replication in the lungs as early as day 2 following intranasal and intratracheal challenge. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of lung cells on day 4 after infection revealed that MVA/S vaccination also protected macaques from infection-induced inflammation and B cell abnormalities and lowered induction of interferon-stimulated genes. These results demonstrate that MVA/S vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cells in the blood and lungs and is a potential vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Gene Order , Immunophenotyping , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
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