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1.
Arch Toxicol ; 96(8): 2329-2339, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930384

ABSTRACT

BriLife®, a vector-based vaccine that utilizes the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform to express and present the spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2, is undergoing testing in a phase 2 clinical trial in Israel. A nonclinical repeated-dose (GLP) toxicity study in New Zealand white rabbits was performed to evaluate the potential toxicity, local tolerance, immunogenicity and biodistribution of the vaccine. rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S (or vehicle) was administered intramuscularly to two groups of animals (106, 107 PFU/animal, n = 10/sex/group) on three occasions, at 2-week intervals, followed by a 3-week recovery period. Systemic clinical signs, local reactions, body weight, body temperature, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, clinical pathology, C-reactive protein, viremia and antibody levels were monitored. Gross pathology was performed, followed by organs/tissues collection for biodistribution and histopathological evaluation. Treatment-related changes were restricted to multifocal minimal myofiber necrosis at the injection sites, and increased lymphocytic cellularity in the iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen. These changes were considered related to the inflammatory reaction elicited, and correlated with a trend for recovery. Detection of rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine RNA was noted in the regional iliac lymph node in animals assigned to the high-dose group, at both termination time points. A significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibody titers was observed following vaccination at both vaccine doses. In view of the findings, it was concluded that the rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine is safe. These results supported the initiation of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
2.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4380-4389, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713090

ABSTRACT

A multi-component microarray, applying a novel analysis algorithm, was developed for quantitative evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' immunogenicity. The array enables simultaneous quantitation of IgG, IgM, and IgA, specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, receptor binding domain, and nucleocapsid proteins. The developed methodology is based on calculating an apparent immunoglobulin signal from the linear range of the fluorescent read-outs generated by scanning the microarray slides at different exposure times. A dedicated algorithm, employing a rigorous set of embedded conditions, then generates a normalized signal for each of the unique assays. Qualification of the multi-component array performance (evaluating linearity, extended dynamic-range, specificity, precision, and accuracy) was carried out with an in-house COVID-19, qRT-PCR positive serum, as well as pre-pandemic commercial negative sera. Results were compared to the WHO international standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins. Specific IgG, IgM, and IgA signals obtained by this array enabled successful discrimination between SARS-CoV-2 q-RT-PCR positive (seroconverted SARS-CoV-2 patients) and negative (naïve) samples. This array is currently used for evaluation of the humoral response to BriLife, the VSV-based Israeli vaccine during phase I/II clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699506

ABSTRACT

The emergence of rapidly spreading variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a major challenge to the ability of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies to provide immunity. These variants contain mutations of specific amino acids that might impede vaccine efficacy. BriLife® (rVSV-ΔG-spike) is a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate currently in phase II clinical trials. It is based on a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform. The rVSV-ΔG-spike contains several spontaneously acquired spike mutations that correspond to SARS-CoV-2 variants' mutations. We show that human sera from BriLife® vaccinees preserve comparable neutralization titers towards alpha, gamma, and delta variants and show less than a three-fold reduction in the neutralization capacity of beta and omicron compared to the original virus. Taken together, we show that human sera from BriLife® vaccinees overall maintain a neutralizing antibody response against all tested variants. We suggest that BriLife®-acquired mutations may prove advantageous against future SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293181

ABSTRACT

BriLife® (rVSV- ΔG-spike) is a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform. We show that sera from BriLife® vaccinees maintain neutralization capacity against alpha, beta, gamma and delta SARS-CoV-2 variants. BriLife® spontaneously-acquired spike mutations, corresponding with key SARS-CoV-2 variants mutations, may contribute to its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0087021, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455682

ABSTRACT

The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in Israel in late February 2020. Three major outbreaks followed, resulting in over 800,000 cases and over 6,000 deaths by April 2021. Our aim was characterization of a serological snapshot of Israeli patients and healthy adults in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sera from 55 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 146 healthy subjects (early-pandemic, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR [qRT-PCR]-negative), collected in Israel between March and April 2020, were screened for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, using a 6-plex antigen microarray presenting the whole inactivated virus and five viral antigens: a stabilized version of the spike ectodomain (S2P), spike subunit 1 (S1), receptor-binding-domain (RBD), N-terminal-domain (NTD), and nucleocapsid (NC). COVID-19 patients, 4 to 40 days post symptom onset, presented specific IgG to all of the viral antigens (6/6) in 54 of the 55 samples (98% sensitivity). Specific IgM and IgA antibodies for all six antigens were detected in only 10% (5/55) and 4% (2/55) of the patients, respectively, suggesting that specific IgG is a superior serological marker for COVID-19. None of the qRT-PCR-negative sera reacted with all six viral antigens (100% specificity), and 48% (70/146) were negative throughout the panel. Our findings confirm a low seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Israeli adult population prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. We further suggest that the presence of low-level cross-reacting antibodies in naive individuals calls for a combined, multiantigen analysis for accurate discrimination between naive and exposed individuals. IMPORTANCE A 6-plex protein array presenting the whole inactivated virus and five nucleocapsid and spike-derived SARS-CoV-2 antigens was used to generate a serological snapshot of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and seroconversion in Israel in the early months of the pandemic. Our findings confirm a very low seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Israeli adult population. We further propose that the presence of low-level nonspecific antibodies in naive individuals calls for a combined, multiantigen analysis for accurate discrimination between naive and exposed individuals enabling accurate determination of seroconversion. The developed assay is currently applied to evaluate immune responses to the Israeli vaccine during human phase I/II trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Microarray Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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