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1.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 8(1): 20552173221085242, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736273

ABSTRACT

Background: People with MS may have unique perspectives on COVID-19 vaccines due to their condition and/or medications. Objective: Assess perspectives and experiences with COVID-19 vaccination, and quantify variables impacting COVID-19 vaccine willingness in people with MS. Methods: A survey captured demographics, MS characteristics, and COVID-19 infection and exposures data; opinions on COVID-19 vaccine safety, side effects, and efficacy; and experiences following vaccination. Chi-square tests and a logistic regression model were used to denote between-group differences and variables predicting vaccine willingness, respectively. Results: Most (87.8%) of the 237 participants were willing to receive the vaccine. Fifteen percent held or delayed a DMT dose for vaccination. MS symptoms worsened in a minority (7.6% first/only dose; 14.7% second dose), and most side effects were mild (80.0%; 55.3%). Those not planning to receive the vaccine were primarily concerned with long-term safety (70.4%). Medical comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=5.222; p=0.04) and following infection prevention precautions (aOR=6.330; p=0.008) were associated with vaccine willingness. Conclusion: Most individuals with MS surveyed plan to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. People with MS experience similar side effects to the general population, and few experience transient MS symptom worsening. These results can inform conversations on vaccination between providers and people with MS.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211069068, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700239

ABSTRACT

Over the recent years, the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has evolved very rapidly and a large number of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are now available. However, most DMTs are associated with adverse events, the most frequent of which being infections. Consideration of all DMT-associated risks facilitates development of risk mitigation strategies. An international focused workshop with expert-led discussions was sponsored by the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and was held in April 2021 to review our current knowledge about the risk of infections associated with the use of DMTs for people with MS and NMOSD and corresponding risk mitigation strategies. The workshop addressed DMT-associated infections in specific populations, such as children and pregnant women with MS, or people with MS who have other comorbidities or live in regions with an exceptionally high infection burden. Finally, we reviewed the topic of DMT-associated infectious risks in the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Herein, we summarize available evidence and identify gaps in knowledge which justify further research.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(2): 153-162, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598451

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons with immune dysfunction have a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, these patients were largely excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, creating a large evidence gap. Objective: To identify the incidence rate and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for COVID-19 breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among persons with or without immune dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a partnership that developed a secure, centralized electronic medical record-based repository of COVID-19 clinical data from academic medical centers across the US. Persons who received at least 1 dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between December 10, 2020, and September 16, 2021, were included in the sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccination, COVID-19 diagnosis, immune dysfunction diagnoses (ie, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, solid organ transplant, and bone marrow transplantation), other comorbid conditions, and demographic data were accessed through the N3C Data Enclave. Breakthrough infection was defined as a COVID-19 infection that was contracted on or after the 14th day of vaccination, and the risk after full or partial vaccination was assessed for patients with or without immune dysfunction using Poisson regression with robust SEs. Poisson regression models were controlled for a study period (before or after [pre- or post-Delta variant] June 20, 2021), full vaccination status, COVID-19 infection before vaccination, demographic characteristics, geographic location, and comorbidity burden. Results: A total of 664 722 patients in the N3C sample were included. These patients had a median (IQR) age of 51 (34-66) years and were predominantly women (n = 378 307 [56.9%]). Overall, the incidence rate for COVID-19 breakthrough infection was 5.0 per 1000 person-months among fully vaccinated persons but was higher after the Delta variant became the dominant SARS-CoV-2 strain (incidence rate before vs after June 20, 2021, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.2-2.2] vs 7.3 [95% CI, 7.3-7.4] per 1000 person-months). Compared with partial vaccination, full vaccination was associated with a 28% reduced risk for breakthrough infection (adjusted IRR [AIRR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76). People with a breakthrough infection after full vaccination were more likely to be older and women. People with HIV infection (AIRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49), rheumatoid arthritis (AIRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), and solid organ transplant (AIRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.96-2.38) had a higher rate of breakthrough infection. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that full vaccination was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 breakthrough infection, regardless of the immune status of patients. Despite full vaccination, persons with immune dysfunction had substantially higher risk for COVID-19 breakthrough infection than those without such a condition. For persons with immune dysfunction, continued use of nonpharmaceutical interventions (eg, mask wearing) and alternative vaccine strategies (eg, additional doses or immunogenicity testing) are recommended even after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution
5.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103636, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators and anti-CD20 therapies impair humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Relatively few studies have assessed the impact of an array of disease modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) on T cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: In 101 people with MS, we measured humoral responses via an immunoassay to measure IgG against the COVID-19 spike S1 glycoprotein in serum. We also measured T cell responses using FluoroSpot assay for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (Mabtech, Sweden) using cryopreserved rested PBMCs and then incubated in cRPMI with 1µg/ml of pooled peptides spanning the entire spike glycoprotein (Genscript, 2 pools; 158 peptides each). Plates were read on an AID iSpot Spectrum to determine the number of spot forming cells (SFC)/106 PBMCs. We tested for differences in immune responses across DMTs using linear models. FINDINGS: Humoral responses were detected in 22/39 (56.4%) participants on anti-CD20 and in 59/63 (93.6%) participants on no or other DMTs. In a subset (n=88; 87%), T cell responses were detected in 76/88 (86%), including 32/33 (96.9%) participants on anti-CD20 therapies. Anti-CD20 therapies were associated with an increase in IFN-γ SFC counts relative to those on no DMT or other DMTs (for anti-CD20 vs. no DMT: 425.9% higher [95%CI: 109.6%, 1206.6%] higher; p<0.001; for anti-CD20 vs. other DMTs: 289.6% [95%CI: 85.9%, 716.6%] higher; p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: We identified a robust T cell response in individuals on anti-CD20 therapies despite a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Follow up studies are needed to determine if this translates to protection against COVID-19 infection. FUNDING: This study was funded partially by 1K01MH121582-01 from NIH/NIMH and TA-1805-31136 from the National MS Society (NMSS) to KCF and TA-1503-03465 and JF-2007-37655 from the NMSS to PB. This study was also supported through the generosity of the collective community of donors to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine for COVID research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 427: 117517, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 subjects if a "cytokine storm" or neuroinflammation are implicated in pathogenesis of neurological complications. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis (stroke, encephalopathy, headache) and illness severity. COVID-19 CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders and stroke controls (n = 82). Cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A), inflammation and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity-C Reactive Protein [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: CSF from COVID-19 subjects showed absence of pleocytosis or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, ferritin, or D-dimer). Although pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-12p70) and IL-10 were increased in CSF of stroke COVID-19 subjects, a similar increase was observed in non-COVID-19 stroke subjects. Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke and critical COVID-19 as compared to controls and other COVID-19 severity categories. CSF-hsCRP was present in all subjects with critical stages of COVID-19 (7/18) but only in 1/82 controls. CONCLUSION: The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies and mechanisms of neuronal damage are still undetermined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Mult Scler ; 26(10): 1163-1171, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at higher risk for complications from the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic due to use of immunomodulatory disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and greater need for medical services. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and describe the pandemic's impact on healthcare delivery. METHODS: Surveys sent to MS patients at Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins, and Vall d'Hebron-Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya in April and May 2020 collected information about comorbidities, DMTs, exposures, COVID-19 testing/outcomes, health behaviors, and disruptions to MS care. RESULTS: There were 3028/10,816 responders. Suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases were more likely to have a known COVID-19 contact (odds ratio (OR): 4.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 18.54). In multivariable-adjusted models, people who were younger, had to work on site, had a lower education level, and resided in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were less likely to follow social distancing guidelines. 4.4% reported changes to therapy plans, primarily delays in infusions, and 15.5% a disruption to rehabilitative services. CONCLUSION: Younger people with lower socioeconomic status required to work on site may be at higher exposure risk and are potential targets for educational intervention and work restrictions to limit exposure. Providers should be mindful of potential infusion delays and MS care disruption.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Employment , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Occupational Therapy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Class , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Educational Status , Female , Health Behavior , Health Services Accessibility , Home Infusion Therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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