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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707490

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
3.
Sci Adv ; 7(43): eabj3627, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483968

ABSTRACT

The emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused global concerns about increased transmissibility, increased pathogenicity, and decreased efficacy of medical countermeasures. Animal models can be used to assess phenotypical changes in the absence of confounding factors. Here, we compared variants of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to a recent B.1 SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing the D614G spike substitution in the rhesus macaque model. B.1.1.7 behaved similarly to D614G with respect to clinical disease and replication in the respiratory tract. Inoculation with B.1.351 resulted in lower clinical scores, lower lung virus titers, and less severe lung lesions. In bronchoalveolar lavages, cytokines and chemokines were up-regulated on day 4 in animals inoculated with D614G and B.1.1.7 but not with B.1.351. In nasal samples, cytokines and chemokines were up-regulated only in the B.1.1.7-inoculated animals. Together, our study suggests that circulation under diverse evolutionary pressures favors transmissibility and immune evasion rather than increased pathogenicity.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303899

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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