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1.
J Asthma ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the risk of severe clinical outcomes during hospitalizations of adults with asthma and/or COPD plus COVID-19 and compares those risks with those during hospitalizations of adults with asthma and/or COPD without COVID-19. METHODS: We used data from 877 U.S. hospitals from the Premier Healthcare Database during March 2020-March 2021. Hospitalizations (n = 311,215) among patients aged ≥18 years with an ICD-10-CM diagnosis involving asthma or COPD were classified into three groups: adults with asthma (but not COPD), adults with COPD (but not asthma), and adults with both asthma and COPD. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess associations of severe clinical outcomes [intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and death] and COVID-19 status. RESULTS: The percentage of hospitalizations among patients with asthma and COVID-19 resulting in ICU admission, IMV, and death were 46.9%, 14.0%, and 8.0%, respectively. These risks were higher than those among patients with asthma without COVID-19 (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.21], 1.61 [95% CI, 1.50-1.73], and 5.56 [95% CI, 4.89-6.32]), respectively. Risks of ICU admission, IMV, and death were also high among patients with COPD and COVID-19 and exceeded the corresponding risks among patients with COPD without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations among patients with asthma and/or COPD with COVID-19 had a more severe clinical course than hospitalizations for asthma and/or COPD exacerbations without COVID-19.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at www.tandfonline.com/ijas .

2.
Fam Med Community Health ; 8(4)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the quality improvement measures made by Norwegian general practice (GP) during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluate the differences in quality improvements based on region and assess the combinations of actions taken. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Participants were included after taking part in an online quality improvement COVID-19 course for Norwegian GPs in April 2020. The participants reported whether internal and external measures were in place: COVID-19 sign on entrance, updated home page, access to video consultations and/or electronic written consultations, home office solutions, separate working teams, preparedness for home visits, isolation rooms, knowledge on decontamination, access to sufficient supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) and COVID-19 clinics. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred GP offices were included. The mean number of general practitioners per office was 5.63. RESULTS: More than 80% of practices had the following preparedness measures: COVID-19 sign on entrance, updated home page, COVID-19 clinic in the municipality, video and written electronic consultations, knowledge on how to use PPE, and home office solutions for general practitioners. Less than 50% had both PPE and knowledge of decontamination. Lack of PPE was reported by 37%, and 34% reported neither sufficient PPE nor a dedicated COVID-19 clinic. 15% reported that they had an isolation room, but not enough PPE. There were no geographical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Norwegian GPs in this study implemented many quality improvements to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, the largest potentials for improvement seem to be securing sufficient supply of PPE and establishing an isolation room at their practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , General Practice/methods , General Practice/standards , General Practice/statistics & numerical data , General Practitioners , Humans , Norway , Pandemics , Quality Improvement , Remote Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 42-49, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722426

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely impacted both health and the economy. Absent an effective vaccine, preventive measures used, some of which are being relaxed, have included school closures, restriction of movement, and banning of large gatherings. Our goal was to estimate the association of voter turnout with county-level COVID-19 risks. METHODS: We used publicly available data on voter turnout in the March 10 primary in three states, COVID-19 confirmed cases by day and county, and county-level census data. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to estimate the association of voter turnout with COVID-19 incidence, adjusted for county-level population density and proportions: over age 65 years, female, Black, with college education, with high school education, poor, obese, and smokers. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk was associated with voter turnout, most strongly in Michigan during the week starting 3 days postelection (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.33). For longer periods, the association was progressively weaker (risk ratio 0.98-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased absentee-ballot voting in the primary, our results suggest an association of voter turnout in at least one state with a detectable increase in risks associated with and perhaps due to greater exposures related to the primary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Politics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Local Government , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
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